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Voice of the 
National Federation of the Blind 

AUGUST - 1970 

The National Federation of the Blind is not an organization speaking for the blind-it is the 
Wind speaking for themselves. 


PubUshed monthly m inkprint, Braille, and on talking book discs 
Distributed free to the blind by the National Federation of the Blind 
President; Kenneth Jemigan, 524 Fourth Street, Des Moines, Iowa 50309 

EDITOR: Perry Sundquist, 4651 Mead Avenue Sacramento, CaUfomia 95822 
Associate Editor: Hazel tenBroek, 2652 Shasta Road, Berkeley, California 94708 
News items should be sent to the Editor 
Address changes should be sent to 2652 Shasta Road, Berkeley, California 94708 

:jc :f; ^ >|c :)( 

If you or a friend wish to remember the National Federation of the Blind in your will, you 
can do so by employing the following language: 

"I give, devise, and bequeath unto NATIONAL FEDERATION OF THE BLIND, 

a District of Columbia non-profit corporation, the sum of $ (or, 

" percent of my net estate", or "the following stocks and bonds: ") to 

be used for its worthy purposes on behalf of blind persons and to be held and 
administered by direction of its Executive Committee " 

If your wishes are more complex, you may have your attorney communicate with the 
Berkeley Office for other suggested forms. 

Printed at 2652 Shasta Road, Berkeley, Cahfomia 94708 

AUGUST 1970 




by Donald L. Roberts 55 




by Dr. Max Rafferty 62 


by Shai'on Bailey 66 






by Creig Slayton . 7 1 


by Dr Hoist Geissler 72 


by Joshua Watson . 80 


by Judy Wilkinson , .83 


by Frank H. Smith 86 


by Harvey Patton 87 


by Dr. Isabelle L. D. Grant 89 


by Clark Redfield 91 


by Dr. Jacob Freid 94 


by Samuel K. WoltY 96 


by Sam Earle 98 


by Captain H. J. M. Dcsai 99 


Due to time limitations, September will be the Convention issue. 


Donald L. Roberts 

Illinois is where the' action is--or, so 
say members of the Ilhnois Congress of 
the Blind. Recently the K^B became 
embroiled in a philosophical controversy 
with one of the best known charities in 
Chicago, namely the Chicago Lighthouse 
for the Blind. 

It all started innocently enough. In 
November of 1969 the Cliicago 
Lighthouse for the Blind in conjunction 
with National Industries for the Blind was 
holding a sale in the auditorium of St. 
Joseph Hospital in Chicago. Such items as 
dolls, door mats, and Rigs, etc. were being 
sold at inflated prices, the proceeds of 
which purportedly benefited the blind. I 
was approached by one of my co-workers 
who requested a few more specifics as to 
how this type of operation benefited the 
blind. I told her that the majority of 
persons who work in sheltered workshops 
make far less than the national minimum 
wage and that only a quite small 
percentage of the proceeds .wind-up in the 
pockets of the blind wage earners. As luck 
would have it, my co-worker was quite 
well acquainted with a news reporter from 
the National Broadcasting Company. My 
friend stated that she felt that this 
information might be of interest to her 
reporter friend and said that she would 
discuss the matter with him. A few days 
later, I was contacted by telephone by Mr. 
Russ Ewing of NBC who requested more 

information on this matter. He then went 
to his superiors from whom he obtained 
an authorization of funds to be used in the 
investigation of the operations of the 
sheltered workshop facility of the Chicago 
Lighthouse for the Blind. Soon thereafter, 
several investigators went to the Chicago 
Liglithouse to examine the operations of 
the facility. After the preliminary 
investigations, camera crews were sent out 
to film an interview with Mr. William O. 
McGill, Executive Director of the Chicago 
Lighthouse. Mr. McGill initially declined 
to go on camera; however, he reluctantly 
consented when told that material would 
be televised regarding the Lighthouse and 
that NBC wanted him to present the facts 
from the point of view of the Chicago 
Lighthouse. The camera crews also walked 
through the Lighihouse shop taking 
pictures of workers going about their daily 
routine. These pictures were subsequently 
shown during the program while various 
interviews were in progress. 

The investigation culminated in a 
thirty-minute program which was televised 
on Sunday, February 1, 1970. This 
program exposed intolerable wages, 
shocking conditions, and a wholly 
outdated philosophy of blindness as well 
as a 19th-century attitude toward the 
handicapped in general and the blind in 
particular. In addition to the discussion 
with Mr. McGill, the program also featured 


interviews witli Don Roberts and Bill 
Myers, first and second Vice-Presidents 
respectively of tlie Illinois Congress of the 
Blind, Illinois affiliate of the National 
Federation of the Blind. Also interviewed 
was Mr. Donald Barrett, a blind medical 
tran scrip tionist and member of the Illinois 
Congress of the Blind. The three blind 
persons interviewed recognized tliat some 
of the Lightliouse's programs and projects 
are technically of exceptionally high 
quality; however, this should present no 
excuse whatsoever for the insufferable 
conditions in the workshop and the 
deficient philosophy underlying the 
operations of the Liglithouse. Mr. McGill 
rationalized the extremely low wages paid 
to the majority of the workshop 
employees by stating that tlie majority of 
these workshop employees are paid 
according to piece rates. These piece rates 
are based on the amount of work which a 
physically able-bodied worker can produce 
in an hour's time. Thus, if a bhnd person 
can produce only fifty percent of the 
piece rate, he is paid only fifty percent of 
the hourly wage for that job. Mr. McGill 
emphasized the contention that many of 
the workshop employees are multiply 
handicapped and therefore unable to 
obtain work in competitive industiy. A 
small but significant portion of the 
program was devoted to an interview with 
Mr. Robert Bader who holds an 
administrative position with the Western 
Electric Company from whom the Chicago 
Lighthouse has a subcontract to make 
parts for Bell Telephones. Mr. Bader said 
that the work done by the blind workers 
was of high quality and met all of the 
Western Electric specifications. And yet 
when told on camera for the first time 
that some Lighthouse shop workers were 
being paid at the rate of 40 cents per hour, 
he stated that one must consider the total 

program of tlie Lighthouse rather thaji tlie 
amount of money earned by tlie shop 
employees. The thrust of the discussion 
was that work to the blind was more of a 
therapeutic nature than a means of earning 
a living. 

The response to the NBC program 
was immediate. The NBC switchboard was 
deluged witli hundreds of calls expressing 
indignation over the pitifully poor wages 
and deceptive practices of the Chicago 
Lighthouse. Many letters were also 
received by NBC regarding the program, 
tlie majority of which were highly critical 
of the Chicago Lighthouse. 

On Wednesday, Februaiy 4, the 
Lighthouse held a press conference in 
which it denied the charges made by NBC 
and itself charged the network with 
presenting a distorted picture of the 
Lighthouse-this despite the fact that the 
program was never billed as a total picture 
of the Lighthouse but in fact focused on 
the sheltered shop work facility. This press 
conference was attended by three officers 
of the Illinois Congress of the Blind. 
Following the reading of the prepared 
statement, reporters' questions were 
fielded by Mr. McGill and by Mr. Donald 
H. Palmer, President of the Board of 
Directors of the Chicago Lighthouse for 
the Blind. Mr. Palmer and Mr. McGill 
seemed to feel that because of some 
worthwhile programs being carried out by 
the Lighthouse and because of the many 
years for which the Lighthouse has been in 
existence that the Lighthouse was 
therefore immune from criticism. When 
asked if he would agree to discuss the 
policies of the Chicago Lighthouse with 
elected representatives of the blind 
community, and more specifically a 
representative from the Illinois Congress 


of the Blind, Mr. McGill stated that the 
leaders of the ICB were not mature and 
had not established themselves in the 
community. During the press conference, 
Mr. McGill alleged that the shop had lost 
some $16,000 last year and that it was 
therefore fiscally impossible for the 
Lighthouse to pay its workers the national 
minimum wage Furthemiore, he inferred 
that the regulations governing payment of 
handicapped workers would preclude 
payment of the national minimum wage. 
Throughout the press conference, it was 
quite apparent that the Chicago 
Lighthouse did not feel that the average 
blind person's work was worth a day's 

On that same evening, the ICB Board 
of Directors decided that in view of some 
of the assertions made and some of the 
attitudes expressed by the Lighthouse at 
their press conference, further action was 
imperative. Therefore, on the afternoon of 
Friday, February 6. some forty members 
of the Illinois Congress of tlie Blind held a 
demonstration outside of the Lighthouse 
and delivered to Mr. McGill a Hst of three 

a. That the Lighthouse cease 
suppressing any attempt at unionization in 
the workshop as has been done for many 
years past. 

b. That the Lighthouse authorities 
begin raising all wage levels in the 
workshop to equal the federally 
guaranteed national minimum wage for 
the able-bodied, And, 

c. That the Lighthouse Board of 
Directors currently comprised solely of 
seeing persons immediately elect to its 
membership at least three blind persons 

not employed in any way by the 
Lighthouse from among the elected 
leaders of organizations of blind persons in 
Illinois which have no agency ties. 

Mr. McGill emerged from the Lighthouse 
and promised the demonstrators that the 
demands would be discussed by the 
Lighthouse Board of Directors at its 
meeting of Tuesday, February 10, and 
that a reply would be given in writing. 
When no reply had been received by 
Tuesday, February 17, Rami Rabby, 
President of the Illinois Congress of the 
Blind, contacted Mr. McGill by telephone 
only to learn that the demands had not 
even been placed on the agenda. "Our first 
priority," said Mr. McGill, "is to deal with 

On Monday, February 23, it became 
apparent that the Lighthouse had hired a 
firm of private detectives who began 
descending upon the homes of various 
bhnd persons in Chicago and pestering 
tliem with telephone calls and questions in 
an attempt admitted by these detectives to 
elicit from tliese blind persons statements 
to the effect that NBC television had 
goaded the Illinois Congress of the Blind 
into embarking upon this campaign to 
hold the demonstration 

Also on Monday, February 23, Mr. 
Fred Bixby and Mr. Donald Vogel, both of 
whom are board members of the Illinois 
Congress of the Blind, participated in a 
local radio talk program hosted by Mr. 
Stan Dale during which the issues 
surrounding the Lighthouse controversy 
were discussed. Listeners were invited to 
participate by telephoning in questions 
and comments regarding the controversy 
This was indeed a golden opportimity for 
the ICB to present its case and also to 


discuss blindness in veiy practical terms 
rather thim on the emotional level at 
which it is discussed on many such 

With each passing day, it became 
increasingly more apparent that the 
Chicago Liglithouse would prefer to let 
the issue die. Therefore, at a boai"d 
meeting held on Sunday, March 7, it was 
decided tliat further action ought to be 
taken. The ICB therefore held a press 
conference on Wednesday, April 10, in the 
Ascott Hotel. At this press conference, the 
ICB called for the resignation of Mr. 
WilHam O. McGill, Executive Director of 
the Chicago Lighthouse for the Blind 
because of his archaic philosophy about 
blindness and about bhnd people, and, 
because of his insensitivity to the desires 
of the Lighthouse's constituents. 

On Friday, Marcli 10, we again had 
lui opportunity to discuss this matter in 
the media as three representatives of ihe 
Ilhnois Congress of the Blind were invited 
to discuss the matter on the Night Line 
program hosted by Mr. Dave Baum. This 
segment of the program was scheduled to 
last for only an hour: however, the 
discussion generated such intense interest 
that the ICB representatives were invited 
to retiu-n on Sunday, to continue the 
discussion. It should be mentioned that 
Mr. William McGill had been invited to 

appear on this same program to present his 
point of view; however, he declined. He 
chose instead to appear on the Night Line 
Program three days later, at which time he 
had with him Mr. Donald H. Pahner, 
President of the Lighthouse Boai-d of 
Directors. In answering the charges made 
by tile Illinois Congress of the Blind, Mr. 
McGill stressed the fact that the 
rehabilitation of blind persons was 
primarily a problem of achieving proper 
psychological adjustment on the part of 
the blind client. He further stated that the 
wages paid to tlie worksliop employees 
were of secondary importance. 

At the time of this writing, the 
Illinois Congress of the Blind has recently 
received correspondence from Mr. William 
McGill proposing a meeting of 
representatives of the Illinois Congress of 
the Blind and of tlie Chicago Lighthouse 
to discuss matters of mutual concern and 
more specifically "the demands." The ICB 
is detemiined to make every effort to 
attain for the Lighthouse workshop 
employees a decent standard of living and 
good working conditions. It is our sincere 
hope tiiat the proposed meeting will 
acliieve these goals. However, we reserve 
the right to criticize where criticism is 
warranted; and we further assert our 
detennination to discuss these matters in 
the media and to utilize whatever means 
are necessary in attaining these just goals. 



Junes, 1970 

Mr. T. A. Benliam, President 
Taben Recordings 
221 Rock Hill Road 
Bala-Cynwyd, Pennsylvania 19004 

Deal" Tom: 

1 have your letter commenting upon 
that portion of the Hawaii Survey which 
deals with Taben equipment, and I think 
the points you make should be presented 
to the audience that received the survey. 
In fact, unless you object to my doing so, 
I shall ask the Monitor Editor to print the 
full text of your letter and my answer in 
our August issue. Since that particular 
issue will contain an account of this year's 
convention, it will receive wide 
distribution and will be thoroughly read. 

Let me conclude by saying one more 
tiling. I have a great deal of respect for 
you and the work you have done to better 
the condition of the blind. I know that 
you are dedicated and that you are 
competent. Whatever you would say 
concerning technical or scientific matter, I 
would give considerable weight. The fact 
tliat someone else might have a different 
view on a particular item is neither a 
reflection upon you nor the person 

I want to thank you for calhng this 
matter to my attention. I hope that you 
will feel that the action I propose to take 
will set the situation in proper perspective. 


Kenneth Jemigan, President 

When a team is appointed to study 
programs for the bUnd in a state, the 
members of that team must have the 
freedom to call the shots as they see tliem. 
This will mean that some people will be 
happy and some will be unhappy with all 
or part of the report. I did not participate 
in writing the report, but I did appoint the 
team, and I know that they are people of 
competence and integrity. They reported 
tlie situation as they saw it. 

This does not mean that their 
judgment is infallible on every technical 
point, especially such matters as what 
brands of recording equipment hold up 
well under stress. Under the 
circumstances, I think that the fair thing 
to do is to present in full your remarks on 
the subject. 

May 28, 1970 

Mr. Kenneth Jemigan 

524 Fourth Street 

Des Moines, Iowa 50309 

Dear Ken: 

I was very much disturbed to read in The 
Braille Monitor for May, 1970 the 
following comment on page 61: "A 
TABEN tape duplicator (with a reputation 
for breaking down continuously)." tliis 
statement appears on page 61 of the 
report on Hawaii. 

TABEN equipment has over the years 
been subject to such off-the-cuff 


statements and my reputation and 
business have suffered because of it. I 
would like to point out the following and 
suggest that you might print it in order to 
counteract somewhat the rash statement 
which appeared in the Monitor. 

The duplicator which the state of Hawaii 
purchased from TABEN Recordings cost 
less thim $500. This price should be 
compared with Ampcx (which is tlie 
equipment with which my duplicators are 
often compared). After all, if performance 
is to be compared, price should be 
compared also. 

I gather from the report that the 
duphcator has been left mainly in the 
hands of volunteers. No speciaUzed piece 
of equipment (unless it is absolutely fool 
proof, and therefore expensive) will 
survive very well with a number of 
inexperienced people handling it. We have 
used TABEN duplicating equipment at 
Science for the Blind for yeai^s and have 
found for the SFB budget that it is 
entirely satisfactory. We could invest 
several times as much money in Ampex 
equipment and have fewer problems, but 
we, like many others, happen not to have 
several times as mucn money. 

We have had reports of other TABEN 
equipment in the field being used in 
Hbrajy siluations which has held up 
exceedingly well and given good 
perfoiTnance. I must admit that in these 
instances the personnel using the machine 
has been reasonably consistent and fairly 
knowledgable in tape and tape equipment 

I have tried to design and produce 
inexpensive equipment for use by 
organizations with limited budgets. This 

equipment is sold at a low mark up which 
would not even cover nomial overhead 
(overhead is kept minimal by sharing space 
and personnel with other organizations or 
by using part tijiie help). I can appreciate 
the fact that some libararies are without 
adequate personnel for doing their tape 
work. I regret, however, that such places 
find it necessary to blame TABEN 
equipment for their failure rather than 
place the blame where it belongs. 

1 might point out also that other 
equipment in the tape duphcating field 
will also give problems if it is not 
maintained adequately. 

Just an example to indicate the problems 
which TABEN Recordings has: we sold 
one of our more expensive machines 
(S2300) to a local duplicating facility We 
have been called in on several occasions 
because of complaints that the equipment 
was not working properly. We were 
confronted each time by the machine 
absolutely encrusted in dirt; when the dirt 
had been cleaned off, the machine worked 
perfectly. We tried on each occasion to 
instruct the personnel operating the 
machine in proper cleaning maintenance 
including the cleaning of heads, pinch 
wheels, capstans, etc. Unfortunately, the 
lessons did not help. 

I wonder if Hawaii can state categorically 
that it is the TABEN duplicator which is 
at fault and not their personnel. If so, I 
would suggest that they return it to us for 
proper maintenance. We have heard no 
complaints from Hawaii and we feel that it 
is unjust for their complaints to be aired in 
print when we have not been notified. I 
feel that TABEN Recordmgs deserves an 
apology from either the state of Hawaii or 
the writer of tlie report-or both. 


Veiy tmly yours, 

T. A. Benham, President 

P.S. Hawaii's duplicator is now six years 
old and we have not lieard from them 
since 1965. 


[Reprinted from Tire Missile, PMR Headquarters, Point Mugu, California.] 

Rear Admiral H. S. Moore, 
Commander, Pacific Missile Range, was 
commended at a ceremony at Point Mugu 
last week for the efforts of the command 
in providing employment opportunities 
for the blind. 

According to Anthony G. Mannino, 
president of the California Council of the 
Blind, this was the first official recognition 
of a military organization in CaUfornia for 
its assistance to the blind. 

Mr. Mannino presented the merit 
award to Rear Adm. Moore in a ceremony 
at PMR Headquarters last Thursday. In 
addition, the Admiral received a letter 
from California Governor Ronald Reagan 
congratulating PMR for its work in the 
training and employment of the blind. 

The merit award from Mannino 
stated: "Merit award to Commander 
Pacific Missile Range in recognition and 
appreciation of the important services by 
the headquarters in the training and 
employment of blind persons, thus 
implementing our philosophy of equality, 
opportunity and security for persons 
without sight." 

Governor Reagan's letter to Rear 

Adm. Moore said: "I am pleased to extend 
my congratulations to the officers and 
staff of the Pacific Missile Range for the 
award you are receiving for your work in 
the training and employment of the blind. 
This program is a shining example of what 
can be accomplished by men and women 
with purpose and detennination. 

"All the citizens of this great state 
have some talent and ability to contribute 
for the betterment of our society. They 
must, however, be given the opportunity 
to develop that ability and put it to use. 
The placement of blind persons in jobs at 
this base not only provides a needed 
service, but also gives these handicapped 
people an opportunity to be 
self-sufficient. My best wishes to you of 
the Pacific Missile Range and to the 
California Council of the Blind, Inc., for 
their recognition of your fine efforts." 

The governor's letter was delivered to 
Rear Adm. Moore by Ralph Bennett, 
Ventura County supervisor. 

A proclamation from the City of 
Oxnard for the efforts put forth by tlw 
Civilian Personnel office in the hiring and 
training of the blind was presented to the 
Admiral by R. H. Roussey, Mayor 


Pro-Tem of Oxnard. 

checker, upholsterer, and mess attendant. 

Robert Hogan, civilian personnel 
officer, was also honored. He received a 
scroll from the Ventura County Chapter 
of the California Council of the Blind. 

PMR naval commands presently have 
five totally blind and two partially blind 
civilian employees. Most of them have 
worked here for over ten years, since tlie 
start of the program to gainfully employ 
handicapped peopled based on their 
ability to do the job. Positions held by the 
blind are electrician (telephone), bicycle 
rcpaimian, caipenter, machine operator, 

Others in attendance included bhnd 
and sighted members of the Council of the 
Blind: Roussey, and Don Livingston, 
Camarillo Chamber of Commerce; Thomas 
Laubacher, County Super\'isor; and Leslie 
Maland, representing the city of Santa 

Rear Adm. Moore expressed his 
appreciation for receiving the honor, 
stating that the award would be 
prominently displayed at the 

* * * * 



Dr. Max Rafferty 

Cahfomia Superintendent of Public Instruction 

It is always fascinating to be given a 
topic to discuss before a professional 
group such as this Tenth Annual 
Conference of Bhnd Teachers. Although 
my topic this afternoon, "The Blind 
Teacher, Discrimination and the Law" is 
encased in the somewhat comforting 
tlieme of the conference (A Decade of 
Success), it does prod one to ask certain 
questions: How many blind teachers are 
there employed in the pubhc schools of 
Cahfornia? Where are they employed? 
What do they teach? What does the law 
say about hiring teachers who are visually 
impaired? Does discrimination in liiring 
the visually handicapped occur? If so, 
what are the factors of this 
discrimination? What can be done? Who is 

involved? And, there are more questions. 

A review of available data and 
materials within the Department of 
Education has produced some answers to 
these questions. As we pause to reflect on 
the success of the past decade, it would be 
wise to review the facts. 

1. There are about one hundred blind 
teachers reported as employed in the 
public schools of Cahfornia. 






J 967-68 


100+ (estimated) 

2. During the 1968-69 school year, 
there were eighty-five (85) blind teachers 
employed in California's public schools. 
These teachers were teaching in 
elementaiy schools, junior high schools, 
high schools and at higher levels. 






Junior High School 
High School 
Junior College 
Four-Year College 
Other (Supeivision 
and Administration) 







3, Of the total number of visually 
handicapped teachers reported in the 
school year 1968-69, forty-one were 
identified as totally bhnd. This is progress! 
TJiis is real success! 

4. Subjects taught to children in the 
pubhc schools of this State by teachers 

who were totally blind or partially seeing 
ranged ijnpressively from music, coacliing, 
foreign language, mathematics, history, 
government, psychology, sociology, to 
political science, English, geography, and 
Enghsh as a second language. And those at 
the elementary level, we understand, 
taught everything! 

Substance! This is a long, long way 
from arts and crafts for the blind! 

5. Where are blind teachers employed 
in the State? The 1968-69 roster is 
interesting. A fully illustrated 
demographic breakdown isn't necessary; 
however, there were at least two blind 
teachers employed in each of fourteen 
counties of the State of California. Five 
counties had as many as five blind teachers 
employed during the previous school year. 

6. And, the blind do not just teach 
the blind in California. It is particularly 
important to note that during the 1968-69 
school year 54 bhnd teachers (63.5 
percent of the total group) taught classes 
of normally sighted pupils. 

7. Let me add, for the record, that I 
am pleased to have blind teachers, 
administrators, and consultants employed 
as professional staff of the Depai'tment of 
Education. Why did I employ them? 
Because they were the best qualified 
professional persons we could hire for the 

This highlights the employment 
picture of blind teachers in California. 
What about the law? 

A study of blind teachers conducted 
by the Senate resulted in SB 989 which 
was passed and became law in 1965: 


Section 13125. No person otherwise 
qualified sliull be denied the right to 
receive credentials from the State Board of 
Education, to receive training for the 
purpose of becoming a teacher, or to 
engage in practice teaching in any school, 
on the grounds he is totally or partially 
blind: nor shall any school district refuse 
to engage a teacher on such grounds, 
provided that such blind teacher is able to 
carry out the duties of the position for 
which he applies in the school district 

The governing board of a school district 
may request the conv)iission established 
pursuant to Section 363 for advice and 
assistance for puiposes of this section, and 
it shall be the duty of the commission, 
upon sucli request, to render advice and 

Health standards required of 
applicants for credentials authorizing 
public school service in California 
specifically state that "total or partial 
blindness is not a disability defect." There 
are provisi()ns for appeaJ sliould a person 
be denied a credential on the basis of 
health standai'ds. These provisions are set 
forth in the Administrative Code, Title 5. 

The only instances when the physical 
or health characteristics of the teacher 
should be considered are: (1) when such 
impairs his ability to help children learn 
and (2) when some health condition 
would be inimical to the welfare of the 
children and others. 

Prior to tlie enactment of SB 989, 
the Code was silent on the issue of 
employing a blind person in a certificated 
position. That is, the law did not prohibit 
the employment of a bhnd person prior to 

The Governor's Code of Fair 
Practices is ver>' explicit in relation to 
employment practices. I cite two 
statements from Article V dealing with 
State Employment Services: 

All state agencies, including educational 
institutions, which provide employment 
referrals or placement seivices to public or 
private employers shall accept job orders 
only on a nondiscriminatory basis. 

. . . In addition, the Department of 
Employment shall fully utilize its 
knowledge of the labor market, and 
contacts with job applicants, employers 
and unions for promotion of equal 
eniploymen t opportunities 

As early as 1963, there existed an 
authority for the State Board of 
Education to establish in the Department 
of Education a Commission on 
Employment Discrimination. Section 363 
of the Education Code says, in part: 

Section 363: Commission on Employmcnl 
Discrimination The State Board of 
Education may, upon recommendation of 
the Director of Education, estabHsh in the 
Department of Education a commission to 
assist and advise local school districts in 
problems relating to racial, religious or 
other discrimination in connection with 
the e mployment of certificated 

The State Bom^d of Education, 
pursuant to Section 363 has established 
the Commission on Equal Opportunities in 
Education and has appointed 15 members 
to ser/e for four-year tenns. 

There is recourse and assistance by 
the Commission whenever there is a 


problem concerning discrimination 
because of a person's visual impairment. 
But is that really the crux of the problem? 
I think not. 

Probably the greatest barrier for 
employment facing a bUnd person is 
ignorance on the part of the general 
public, some school principals, 
superihtendents and personnel officers. 
Combating discriminatoiy hiring practices 
against blind persons being employed as 
teachers took a giant step forward with 
the enactment of SB 989. That progress 
was a landmark for California and serves as 
a guide for other states. If that were all 
there is to the problem, there would be no 
further mission. There is more 

It seems to me that the target of the 
mission for the 70's is to combat 
misunderstandings and erroneous notions 
about blind teachers. We need to wage a 
vigorous campaign to demonstrate that a 
blind person can be an effective 
instrument in the learning process of 
children. The fact that a blind teacher can 
teach and that the children in his class 
learn is unquestionably the primary 
criterion for hiring or retaining a teacher. 

There may be a fringe group who 
believe they should be hired to teach 
because they are blind. You will want to 
control tliis element within your ranks as 
best you can. Teachers are not hired 
because they are blind. Teachers are hired 
because they can teach. Teachers are hired 
because they are capable and have the 
skills we seek. We want teachers who can 
do the job! A wise man said it for us: 
"The world seldom notices who teachers 
are; but civiUzation depends on what they 

It is incumbent upon all of us to 
bring understanding to this problem area. 
You have a large stake in this concern. It is 
right and necessary that you give a 
measure of leadership, both as individuals 
and as a professional group, to dispel the 
notion that a person is unable to teach 
simply because he does not see. 

From the dawn of time man has 
feaied and backed away from that which 
he does not understand. Plato said that 
double ignorance is when a man is 
ignorant of his ignorance. I suspect that in 
a good many instances what happens is 
that a principal or a personnel officer is 
simply astounded when someone who is 
blind applies for a teaching position. He 
may say, "Well, Mr. Doe, we never have 
had an apphcant who was blind before. 
Where would we place you?" That's an 
easy question. If prepared to teach Enghsh 
at the high school level you reply: "In the 
Enghsh Department in one of the high 
schools. I am prepared to teach English." 
Perhaps well-meaning questions will be 
asked as to how you will get to and from 
school. How you, or any other teacher for 
that matter, gets to and from school is 
irrelevant to the issue of effective 
teaching. And, I suppose there are other 
examples of how personnel officers might 
react. The point is that principals and 
personnel officers have never had to pose 
the questions. You have the answers! 

Whether seeking employment as a 
teacher of normal sighted pupils or as a 
teacher of visually handicapped pupils or 
in other areas in education, you should be 
fully aware that to speak of the problem 
of employment among yourselves or to 
members of the Depai'tment of Education 
is probably hke beating the proverbial 
"dead horse." We know your potential 


capabOities. We are convinced. You must 
address yourselves to the general public, to 
principals, superintendents, and personnel 
officers. We understand; but do they? 

California has long been without an 
adequate supply of qualified teachers. 
California nor any other state can afford 
to overlook quahfied classroom teachers. 
Related to this teacher supply problem, I 
iim advised by my staff that the area of 
the visually handicapped is one of the 
special education categories in crucial need 
of teachers. It would seem that some blind 
teachers may be quahfied and well-suited 
to teach blind aJid partially seeing pupils. 
Some of you teach in this area now. 

We strive in our programs of special 
education to bring each handicapped 
person to his level of highest productive 
capacity' We devote millions of dollars to 

this goal in California special education 
programs. Special education in California 
is viewed as exemplary across the nation. 
Should we refute this commitment by 
refusing to employ a quahfied teacher who 
is blind because he is blind? Certainly not! 
He is the "living proof of the special 
education goal. To refuse him 
employment as a teacher when otherwise 
qualified is a tragic twist of reason. We 
dare not waste such a useful huniiui 
resource. It is an era of focusing on the 
resources of this state and nation. 
Certainly, we would be fools among men 
of all time to ignore the productive 
capabilities of handicapped persons in 
fields of technical and professional 
endeavors. Let the success of the decade 
of the 60's be a direction for the decade of 
the 70's. Let tlie epilogue be but a 


Sharon Bailey 

On Saturday, May 18th. 1970, the 
annual convention of the New Mexico 
Federation of the Blind was held in Santa 
Fe. Among the registrants were an active 
new local chapter and another in the 
process of formation. Included in the 
program were committee reports, guests 
from Pilot Guide Dogs, Inc.. and from the 
New Mexico eye bank, the Mayor of Santa 
Fe, a representative to the New Mexico 
Legislature, and special guests Don Capps 
and his wife Betty. President Sam Chavez 
had much to do with the convention's 

great success. 

Walter Doran, director of the training 
department of Pilot Guide Dogs Inc., 
explained the service his organization 
provides to blind people. The newly 
elected president of the ophthabnological 
association in Santa Fe spoke on the eye 
bank in Nev.' Mexico. Special emphasis was 
given to corneal transplants and tlie role of 
the blind as donors. There was a good 
question and answer period. A 
representative to the New Mexico State 


Legislature reviewed the laws pertaining to 
the blind of New Mexico. 

NFB First Vice President Don Capps 
brought enthusiastic suggestions to the 
convention for the establishment of a state 
commission for the blind in New Mexico. 
This discussion generated great interest as 
evidenced by the convention resolution 
which was adopted to work for a 
commission until it is adopted by the 
legislature. As always it is invigorating to 
have the Cappses attend our convention. 

Much discussion was given to the 
recent actions at the New Mexico School 
for the Visually Handicapped, and the 
implications of these actions for the blind 
of New Mexico and the New Mexico 
Federation of the Bhnd. Nine teachers 
were fired, including two Federation 
members and seven visually handicapped 

people. A resolution was passed to push 
for fair treatment for the nine teachers 
witii a board review of each case. 

Senator .loseph M on toy a was 
commended for all he had done to benefit 
the bhnd of New Mexico. 

The following officers were elected: 
President, Richard Edgar; Vice President, 
Pauline Gomez; Recording Secretary', 
Shai^on Bailey; Corresponding Secretaiy, 
Bill Gideon; Treasurer, Ruth Ihnat; 
Trustees, Sam Chavez, Albert Gonzales 
and Tony Garcia The president from each 
local chapter and four other state 
Federation members will be assisted by 
grants from the state organization to 
attend tlie NFB Convention in Minnesota 
in July. Their retiu^n should bring the 
stimulation of new ideas. 



April 9, 1970 

Douglas Lathrop 

Jury Commissioner 

Municipal Court Los Angeles Judicial District 

1 1 North Grand Avenue 

Los Angeles, CaUfornia 90012 

Dear Mr. Lathrop; 

From time to time I have received a 
notification similar to the enclosed form 
of notice for jury duty from your 
department. This time I am not going to 
bother filling out the form because I feel 

that I would not be telling the truth if I 
claim to be incapable of serving as a juror 
because I am blind. 

The fact that I am blind has certainly not 
deprived me of my intellect, powers of 
reasoning, judgment or mental stability. I 
feel as quaUfied as any juror who ever has 
served or will serve on any jury. Yet, I am 
fully aware of the fact that I will be 
categorically disquahfied to serve as a 
juror because of my bhndness. I believe 
this is definitely discrimination and 
factually depriving me of my rights as a 
citizen of the United States of America 


and the State of California. I do know tiiat 
in other states bHnd persons are being 
permitted to serve on juries. I hope that 
some day those iii authority in California 
will open their minds to the capabilities of 
qualified blind persons. 

will be removed, please return the 
enclosed form and I will gladh' fill it out 
and return it to you. 

Respectfully yours, 

If you believe that I will be accepted as a 
juror and that aJl discriminatory barriers 

Anthony G. Mannino, President 
California Council of the Blind, Inc. 

:}; :}::}::;: ^: :}: :3; :(c ;!; 



Bill Dwyer was born and raised in 
Albany, New York. He was educated at 
Blessed Sacrament Institute, Cathedral 
Academy and Albany Business College, 
graduating in 1943. At fifteen Bill met his 
future wife, Alice Harvie. They now have 
three daughters and three grandsons. 

After a year of 
diminishing sight 
caused by the deteri- 
oration of the blood 
vessels behind the 
eyes. Bill became to- 
taUy bhnd in 1950. 
He was unable to do 
the desk job he had 
at the Huyck Felt 
Company in Rensse- 
laer without sight. 
The company, which 
manufactures the 
huge belts used by 
paper mills, was will- 
ing to give Bill any job a bhnd person 
could do, but tliere was difficulty in 
locating one. Vocational Rehabilitation 
Services were requested to make a sui^vey 
of the niill which was done in two hours 
after a delay of six months. The mill is 
three stories high and covers an entire city 
block; it employed twelve hundred 
persons at the time. The counselor told 
Bill that there was no job that he could do 
and that he would tell the personnel 
director so on Monday. Bill called the 
personnel director first and told him that 
the counselor was sure he could qualify as 
a teasel setter. Then Bill called the 
counselor and told him that Huycks 
wanted him to try the teasel job in spite of 

the findings of the sui-vey. The teasel is a 
thistlehke, dried llowcr head used to raise 
the nap on papermaker's felt. Until his 
retirement in 1967, Bill drilled holes 
through two thousand teasels a day with 
an electric drill press, mixed the glue 
which holds the flower heads on the 
spindle, and aligned 
the teasels with the 
burrs going the same 
way. He also kept 
the teasels working 
by feeling broken 
ones and replacing 
them. Bill surpassed 
his sighted competi- 
tion in a job for 
which siglit was pre- 
viously thought in- 

Bill was elected 
an officer in the Uni- 
ted Textile Workers 
of America and he was elected shop 
steward several times to represent the fifty 
men in his department. He joined the 
organized blind movement in the 
mid-fifties when the NFB had a 
recruitment drive in New York State. He 
was elected president of the 
newly-organized Tri-City Council of the 
Blind and was re-elected many times. He 
served the Empire State Association of the 
Blind as second and as first vice president 
and in September 1969 was elected 
president. He has been chairman of the 
legislative committee since he joined the 

Bill owns his own home in Rensselaer 


and does most of the repairs on his 
property himself, inckiding the building of 
a retainuig wall in his back yard. Bill is 
active in local civic affairs and the Holy 
Name Society of his church. He has an 
average over 100 points in the Capital 
District Blind Bowlers League and he plays 
blind golf, at which he humorously 
considers himself to be the national 
left-handed champion. 

The most important legislative efforts 
of the ESAB have been directed towards 
the acceptance of blind teachers in the 
state teachers colleges and the aboHtion of 
the clause denying blind persons a 
certificate to teach. When it was passed 
ten yeai's ago the Cit>' of New York 
managed a last minute amendment which 
excluded it from the act. It was not until 
1967 that the fight to have the state 
overmle New York City was won. Because 
computers threatened the positions of 
newly hired civil seivice employees, a bill 

was rushed through the Legislature giving 
blind civil semce employees die same 
status as disabled veterans. Other successes 
were in preventing bills detrimental to the 
bhnd from becoming law. The ESAB is 
now working to add a few clauses from 
the Model Wliite Cane Law to the New 
York law. The ESAB has improved the 
vending stand program in New York State, 
obtained housing for bhnd persons going 
through VRS evaluation, improved 
programs for blind students at advanced 
levels and has earned a number of welfare 

In 1961. because of internal 
dissension, the ESAB voluntarily accepted 
suspension from the NFB. William Dwyer 
paid his dues and remained a 
member-at-Jarge. He worked most actively 
for the reinstatement which was 
accomplished in 1963. The ESAB has 
continued to gi'ow in strength since that 

^ ^ :k ♦ * sf; 


[Reprinted from the Commercial Appeal, Memphis, Tennessee. 

"Anybody who's willing to work can 
make a living." Those words take on 
added significance coming from 
fifty-year-old Raymond E. Ahison. 
Although almost totally blind, he operates 
a sixty-cow Grade A dairy in the 
Stonewall community about eight miles 
southeast of here with the aid of only one 
paid, part-time helper. 

The three AlUson sons still living at 
home--ranging in age from seven to 

fifteen-also help "quite a bit" with his 
dairy operation, Mr. Allison said. And, he 
hires machine labor to do the pasture 
work-including clipping, fertilizing and 
planting-because he can't see well enough 
to operate farm machineiy. 

With the help of a cane, he makes his 
way unassisted around his dain,' setup 
througliout his long workday which often 
begins at 3:30 a.m.-'milking time'. He 
handles the milking chores three days a 


week and "the boys doing it the rest of 
the week because a lot of my time is taken 
up with raising calves," Mr. AUison said. 

DeSoto County agent Ross C, 
Robison thinks highly of Mr. Allison. 
"Those remarks of his about anybody 
willing to work being able to make a living 
summarize his philosophy of life," Mr, 
Robison said "Many people with a 
handicap such as his would be willing to 
just fold their hands and wait for a 
handout-but not him He's always wanted 
to make his own way. And you don't find 
many blind farmers." 

Mr. Robison and Mr. AlUson's wife, 
Louise, chuckle when they discuss Mr. 
AUison and his modem pipeline milking 
equipment, installed eighteen months ago 
as a solution to the labor shortage. This 
equipment draws the milk directly from 
cows through pipehnes into a storage tank 
in another room Mr. Allison says it 
accomplishes the milking easier and 
quicker, doing all the jobs from washing 
udders to cleaning up the milking 
machines and pipelines. 

"Some pretty complicated 

instmctions come with the equipment," 
said Mr. Robison. "Most folks foul it up at 
first, even with the written instructions, 
and the folks who install the equipment 
have to come back and help them get 
straightened out. But Raymond got the 
folks installing it to put his hands on all 
those buttons and switches and everything 
else about it while they were instructing 
him in its operation. They never had to 
come back, because he never had any 
trouble operating it." 

"You should have seen how he even 
felt of eveiy thing about the equipment 
while they were installing it," Mrs. Allison 
said, "That wasn't just to find out about 
how it worked. I wanted to be sure I was 
getting my money's worth," Mr. Allison 

Mr. Robison is also amazed that Mr. 
Allison manages artificial breeding of his 
cows rather than employing sighted 
persons to do the work. 

"It's pretty complicated," Mr. 
Robison said. But he attended a three-day 
school and learned to do it. 


Creig SI ay ton 

The National Federation of the Blind 
Student Division appreciates your support 
of its Overseas Books for the Blind 
program. Through this program thousands 
of books have been mailed to schools and 

libraries on three continents. The growth 
of this project has been beyond our 
fondest hopes. However, this 
overwhehning expansion has not been 
without its ensuing difficulties and with 


your forbearance and help we would like 
to now make a few minor changes. 

Because of a lack of storage and 
facilities in Iowa City, we would 
appreciate it greatly if you can from this 
date forth mail Braille books and 
magazines to Mr. Ray McGeorge, Denver 
Area Association of the Blind, 901 E. 17th 
Avenue, Denver, Colorado 80218. Mr. 
McGeorge is president of the Denver .Area 
Association of the Blind and has been 
mailing books overseas for several years. 

We would also ask that no large print 
books be mailed to us. While there is a 
need for this tj'pe of mateiial overseas, the 
Student Division does not currently have 

tlie resources to enable it to cairy on a 
mailing of large print books. We would 
suggest that you check with a local CARE 
office or with your state library in order 
to find someone who may be interested in 
this type of material. 

The National Federation of the Blind 
Student Division requests your continued 
support in the Overseas Books for the 
Blind project and at the same time thanks 
you for your support in tiie past. We 
would greatly appreciate your passing the 
information regarding large print books 
and change of address on to any 
acquaintances who may be planning to 
mail books to us. 

;{: ^ :}: ^ ^ ^ :j£ 



Dr. Horst Geissler, Vice President 

Deutscher Blindenverband E. V. 

A Report of the Committee on Employment of the Blind 

[Editor's Note: The Committee on Employment of the Blind of the International 
Federation of the Blind grew out of a two-\ear study.] 

Rehabilitation programs introduced 
thus far in nearly all of the countries over 
the world are only reasonable if there are 
enough employment opportunities for the 
disabled after finishing their rehabilitation 
training. One of the most useful 
instruments for resettling disabled persons 
is the enactment of appropriate legislation 
governing their employment. 

The universal declaration of human 
rights adopted by the United Nations on 

December 10, 1948, states in Article 23, 
Paragraph 1, that "everyone has aright to 
work, to a free choice of employment, to 
just and favourable conditions of work 
and to protection against unemployment". 

The European Social Charter adopted 
by the member nations of the Council of 
Europe on October 18, 1961, has codified 
the right of the disabled to work. The first 
sentence of Part 1 states that everyone 
must be given the opportunity to earn his 


living by means of an occupation chosen 
freely. Article 15 of Part 2 deals with "the 
right of physically or mentally disabled 
persons to vocational training, 
rehabiUtation and social resettlement". 

It reads: "With a view to ensuring the 
effective exercise of the right of the 
physically or mentally disabled to 
vocational training, rehabilitation and 
resettlement, the contracting parties 

"to take adequate measures for the 
provision of training facilities, including, 
where necessaiy, speciahzed institutions, 
public or private; 

"to take adequate measures for the 
placing of disabled persons in 
employment, such as specialized placing 
services, facilities for sheltered 
employment and measures to encourage 
employers to admit disabled persons to 

The European Social Fund was 
established in 1960 by the member 
nations of the European Economic 
Community. According toArticle 123 of 
the EEC-Contract of Rome it aims at 
"promoting employment facilities and the 
geographical and occupational mobility of 
workers within the Community". Out of 
this Fund the EEC member nations and 
the public bodies receive contributions for 
the vocational rehabilitation of 
handicapped persons. 

The problem of procuring work for 
the disabled has received the greatest 
interest and attention on a worldwide 
basis by the International Labour 
Organization, the ILO, The ILO 
recommendation No. 99 of 1955 deals 

with the vocational rehabilitaton of the 
disabled. Article III of tlie 
recommendation discussed the "Principles 
and Methods of Vocational Guidance, 
Vocational Training and Placement of 
Disabled Persons". With a view to 
placement it mentions three main methods 
of promoting the employment of disabled 

1. The quota system 

2. Reservation of certain designated 
occupations for disabled persons 

3. Preference in certain occupations to 
seriously and multiply handicapped 

As a fourth means, the ILO recommends 
the creation of cooperatives managed by 
the disabled persons or their organizations. 

Legal measures of this kind have been 
introduced thus far in many countries over 
the world. There are, however, a number 
of arguments for and against such 

The following are in favor of sucli 

a. It provides evidence that the 
government supports the employment of 
the disabled as a matter of principle and 
by its legislation it encourages the efforts 
made by the disabled themselves as well as 
tiiose made by tlieir employers. 

b. It necessarily provides a means of 
introducing employers to the idea of 
employing disabled persons who then have 
the chance to demonstrate their 
productivity. In most of the cases the 
employers then become more inclined to 


engage further disabled persons and to 
acknowledge their work as equal to that of 
tlieir other employees. 

c, Resemng specific occupations or 
jobs for the disabled which are particularly 
suited for them is advantageous for certain 
disabled persons who are able to perfonn 
certain simpler tasks and would probably 
remain pemianently unemployed were it 
not for this legislation. 

The following arguments may be 
used against legislation: 

a. Compulsion is wrong as a matter of 


b. Disabled persons placed in this 
manner may be considered to be less 
jiroductive than the other workers. 

c. They may iiave the feeling that 
undue attention is being focused upon 

d. Should a dire state of affairs arise 
the law will not prevent the employer 
from dismissing the disabled person. 

Tiiere are liardly an>' specific laws 
governing the placement of blind persons 
and the problem is generally dealt with 
within the framework of the legislation 
covering the employment of the disabled. 

The Quota System 

Every employer, either public or 
private, having more than a fixed number 
of employees is required to employ a fixed 
minimum number or percentage of 
disabled persons. Besides this, such laws 
often contain regulations governing their 
dismissal and make provision for 

additional vacation time for the disabled. 
According to some of the laws, the 
employment of the bhnd is facilitated by 
the regulation that a blind person is 
counted as two instead of one towards the 
employer's quota obligations. This is taie 
for Austria (Law on the Placement of 
Invalids) and Germany (Disabled Persons 
Employment Act). To our knowledge 
compulsory employment measures 
according to the quota system also exist in 
Belgium (Act on the Resettlement of 
Handicapped Persons of April 16, 1963), 
Brazil (Ordinance No. 7270 of January 25, 
1945), Cyprus (Law of 1963), France 
(Law of November 23, 1967), Great 
Britain (Disabled Persons Act of 1944) 
and in Greece, Hungaiy, .Fapan, the 
Netherlands and Turkey. 

In spite of the introduction of such 
legislation, the placement of tlic bhnd 
remains veiy difficult in some countries. 
For example in Japan, where in 1960 the 
Law No. 123 "Physically Handicapped 
Persons Law, Promotion and 
Employment" was enacted which requires 
private employers to employ a fixed 
percentage of disabled persons among 
their workers. Nevertheless, Hideyuki 
Iwaliaslii wrote in his pamphlet "Welfare 
and Education for the Blind in Japan" in 
1968: "To get a bhnd man employed in 
Japan is considered to be the hardest of 
all. At first we have to beseech charitable 
sympathy on the part of an employer, 
who may be moved into employing the 
blind man from a feehng of self-sacrifice. 
Here springs a charitable deed, which will 
be praised by newspapers and magazines, 
emphasizing it as if to be the true spirit of 
charitable service." 

Therefore, even if we liave a great 
number of countries in which compulsory 


employment measures have been enacted, 
we must not forget the fact that many of 
these laws only exist on paper and thus do 
not benefit the blind. This is also true for 
Brazil, Greece and Turkey, countries 
having appropriate employment laws but 
in which there are still numerous 
unemployed blind persons whose 
placement meets with the greatest 

2. Regulations Conceming Certain 

Types of Work for the Disabled 

Measures of this kind are based on 
the premise that certain kinds of work ai"e 
especially suited for the disabled and 
should be reserved for them. Some 
difficulties may arise, however, if such 
occupations are to be found mainly m 
only one industrial sphere so that the 
branches concerned would have to employ 
substantially more disabled persons tlian 
those in other areas. 

Besides the quota system which 
applies to all business concerns and all 
kinds of occupations. Great Britain also 
has the "Designated Employment System" 
which reserves vacant posts as elevator 
operators and parking lot attendants for 
disabled persons. 

In other countries-particularly in the 
socialistic countries like Bulgaria, 
Czechoslovakia, Poland and 
Yugoslavia-special committees inspect the 
individual plants in order to find jobs 
especially suited for the disabled. A plan is 
then made up showing all of these 
positions and checks are made regularly to 
verify its accuracy. As soon as a vacancy 
occurs this has to be reported to the 
committee or to the office for 
occupational placement and it then 
remains reserved for a disabled person. 

3. Cooperatives Under the Direction 
of the Central Organizations of the Blind 

In Argentina, Act No. 13926 aims at 
promoting the employment of the blind as 
craftsmen, tradesmen (newsstand 
operators) and as public servants. In Italy, 
Law No. 686 of July 21, 1961, requires 
that all of the hospitals having more than 
200 beds employ a blind physiotherapist, 
and Law No. 155 of March 5, 1965, 
requires all of the public and private 
concerns to employ a blind telephone 
operator. This decree has its roots in Law 
No. 549 of July 17, 1957. Whereas the age 
limit for engaging telephone operators was 
originally set at 40 years, the law of 1965 
raised this to 50 years. Thus, the bUnd 
telephone operators in Italy have no 
difficulties at all in finding a place to 
work. The same is true for Tunisia where 
official decrees regulate the privileged 
placement of bhnd telephone operators. 

Although Poland belongs to those 
countries in which the concerns are 
required by law to reserve suitable posts 
for the disabled, the majority of the blind 
are employed in cooperatives supported 
and mn by the central organization of tlie 
bUnd. They are united in the Union of 
Cooperatives of the Blind in Warsaw. The 
situation is similar in the Soviet Union 
where the AU-Russian Society for tlie 
Blind is the main employer of the blind. 
The society nms a number of larger and 
smaller production plants which act in 
part as contractors for larger industrial 
finns or produce ready-made articles. 
They are completely independent of the 
state authorities and operate with 
respectable revenues. Every blind pupil 
knows where he will work and which job 
he shall have even before he leaves school. 


having received the appropriate training 
dining his sciiooling. Everyone having an 
official certification of blindness is 
immediately admitted to the Society for 
the Blind which then takes charge of all 
further developments. Persons who lost 
their sight as adults are retrained and 
rehabilitated in one of the 252 
training-production centei-s. More than 
one half of these centers employ between 
200 and 500 persons, ten percent up to 
1,000 persons. As a rule about sixty 
percent of the employees in these centers 
are bhnd. Excepting the special equipment 
adapted for the blind, these centers are 
absolutely normal production plants. 
Multiply handicapped blind persons 
receive commissions for work at home 
from the centers. 

assist in the training and placement of tiie 
bUnd. Some of the states in tlie U.S.A. 
have laws prohibiting discrimination 
against blind white collar workers in 
public service and against bhnd teachers at 
normal schools. The "Vocational 
Rehabilitation Act" of 1954 is the federal 
basis for a rehabilitation program 
conducted by the "Vocational 
Rehabilitation Administration" and it 
includes all of the measures for the 
training and vocational placement of the 
blind. Roughly 200 private agencies are 
active in realizing this program. 
Compulsor>' employment measures for the 
employers are not in force as the principle 
is followed that the employer sliould be 
convinced of the productivit>' of tiie blind 
and thus employ them voluntarily. 

The same case holds true for Spain 
where the "Organizacion Nacional de 
Ciegos" is an important employer of the 
Blind. It runs two factories making candy 
in which fifty percent of the personnel is 
blind. About 13,000 bhnd persons sell 
lotteiy tickets for the Organizacion. Since 
all of the schools for the blind, the Braille 
printing houses. Braille libraries and 
hostels for the bhnd are also under the 
control of diis organization, the society' 
employs a great deal of administrative, 
teaching and other qualified blind 
personnel so that specific legislation 
relating to the employment of the blind is 
considered to be unnecessary in this 

4. General Measures Relating to 

There are a number of countries not 
having specific employment legislation 
relating to the blind, but in which the 
government takes certain measures to 

According to Article 46 of its 
consitution, the Indian government has to 
conduct certain measures to promote the 
education ;md rehabilitation of disabled 
persons. It is within the scope of these 
measurcs-the esiablishment of special 
placement offices for the disabled also 
belong here-that the blind are also 
situated in commerce and industry. 

The National Association for the 
Blind in Bombay runs its own 
employment office witli four full-time 
workers who are continually on the road 
visiting factories and commercial firms in 
order to find suitable jobs for the blind. 

in Canada the Workmen's 
Compensation Act makes provisions for 
compensation payments to industrial firms 
employing blind persons. Prerequisite to 
the payments of such compensation is that 
tlie blind person was hired with the help 
of a placement officer belonging to the 
Canadian National Institute for the Blind 


and that the Workmen's Compensation 
Board certify the loss arising from the 
employment of the blind person. 

In the Scandinavian counthc/., in 
Switzerland, New Zealand and in many 
countries in the Neai^ and Far East and in 
South America there is no legislation in 
existence regulating the occupational 
reintegration of the blind. In some of the 
highly developed industrial countries the 
well-trained blind are generally able to 
find a job either on their own or with the 
help of their associations. Various 
associations of the bhnd have employment 
of the disabled: the chances of the blind 
finding work are exceptionally small, 
especially since the number of 
unemployed amongst the sighted and 
healthy persons is generally also high in 
these countries. 

To round off this survey it should be 
mentioned that there are "sheltered 
workshops" in many countries not only 
for the bhnd' but also for the other 
disabled persons, which concern 
themselves mainly with their employment 
and less with their reintegration into the 
labor market. For this reason I do not 
deem it essential to go into this matter 
more closely in. this paper, although I am 
well aware of the necessity and 
significance of these institutes. 

However, as I corhe from Germany, 
you may be curious about the situation in 
the Federal Republic of Germany and for 
the particular reason that the German 
Disabled Persons Employment Act has 
found a resonance far beyond the German 

The Act pertaining to the 
employment of disabled persons of 1953 

was drawn up with the intent of securing 
jobs for persons with a severe handicap or 
other disabilities resulting in a reduced 
capacity for earning a Uving but still able 
to work, and on the other hand as an act 
of insurance for those jobs already held. 

Various categories of disabled 
persons-but particularly the war blind and 
those blinded through an accident-fall 
under this act as long as the disability is 
not only temporarily more than fifty 
percent. According to this act the civilian 
blind also belong to the disabled persons 
category However, by means of an 
application at the State Welfare Office 
those persons whose physical disability has 
reduced their capacity for earning a living 
less than fifty percent, but remaining 
above the thirty percent level can be put 
into the above category. This is 
particularly true in the case of the 
partially sighted. On the basis of the 
Disabled Persons Employment Act, the 
blind ai^e entitled to many advantages in 
their occupational life: 


Preferential Placement 

Public service authorities must 
reserve at least ten percent, and public and 
private concerns at least six percent, of the 
jobs available for disabled persons, and an 
appropriate number of blind persons have 
to be among these. The blind are counted 
as two, perhaps even as three, toward the 
number of obligatory disabled persons to 
be employed. Should the employer not 
meet these requirements he is then bound 
by section 9 to make compensation either 
financially or by other means (provision of 
housing, placing orders with firms run by 
disabled persons or with workshops nm by 
the blind, and the like) 


Equipping the Working Area 

4. Protection Against Dismissal 

The employer must equip the 
working area and any machines used by 
the disabled person in such a way that the 
danger of accidents is reduced to an 
absolute minimum and that the blind 
person can pursue his work without any 
undue difficulties. Furthennore, the 
employer is obliged to equip tlie working 
ai^ca with the necessaiy technical aids 
including such things as additional 
apphances, machines and helpers. The 
disabled person should be employed in 
such a manner that he may use his abihties 
and knowledges to the fullest extent 
possible and continue to develop them 
Employers are assisted by the Welfare 
Offices and the State Labor Offices in 
candying out these measures. 

.3. Occupational and Social Protection 

The State Welfare Offices are 
responsible for measures insuring 
maintenance and restoration of the work 
capacity and for measures concerning 
occupational promotion, and they take 
care of housing and family welfare 
problems. They must take all measures 
necessary to insure that the disabled 
person be economically independent. 
They should work towards maintaining 
the social position of the persons 
concerned, towards keeping them within 
tlie realms of their occupation, if at all 
possible, and towards overcoming any 
difficulties which may arise in the 
pursuance of their occupation. The State 
Welfare Offices are responsible for 
equipping the disabled with artificial limbs 
as well as orthopedic and other aids 
necessary for their job, but not provided 
for by any otlier laws. 

The dismissal of a disabled person by 
an employer must be approved by the 
State Welfare Office. 

5. Additional Vacation Time 

Disabled persons aie entitled to im 
additional six days of paid vacation each 

This sketch of the situation regarding 
the right to work and the conditions 
pertiuning to its reahzation is by all means 
incomplete However, it does show that 
the individual circumstances vary a great 
deal. The right of the bhnd to work is also 
recognized in principle in many countries 
and by many institutions, I am of the 
opinion that we should not under-estimate 
this fact wliile continuing our efforts to 
have the right recognized in those 
countries which liave not, as yet, been able 
to decide to recognize this formally. In 
any case, our efforts should not cease at 
that point where the legal status has 
obtained a binding character, but they 
should be continued until the time when 
the pubUc feeling for justice has been 
developed so far that the blind wanting to 
work are also granted the claim to work. I 
am aware that this meets with a number of 
ditTiculties in many countries for reasons 
easily understood, even though the good 
will may be present. However, these 
difficulties should not prevent us from 
espousing the right to work-which belongs 
to the elementary' human rights-from 
confronting the objections intellectually 
and drawing attention to the humane 
aspects of this claim. And on the other 
hand, even if the right to work is generally 


accepted publically, there is still no 
assurance that it will be realized in 
practice. Experience has shown that this 
assurance may be present in the form of 
legislation, organization or in the common 
morals. It is without a doubt the most 
desirable form when the common morals 
have reached such a high standard that 
every employer would consider it to be an 
honorary obligation to employ the blind 
according to their ability, propensity and 
training at a suitable job, to treat them 
socially as well as economically in the 
same way as the other employees and to 
integrate them into the working 
community. Then the blind will also be 
willing to undergo the best possible 
training in accordance with tlieir abOities 
and to utilize without reserve their full 
potential on the job. 

Under these circumstances the rest of 
their fellow workers will finally come to 
stand up for their blind colleagues and the 
workers' associations and unions will 
reveal an understanding for the blind and 
support their special needs. Unfortunately, 
tlie situation is not this ideal in many 
countries, and for this reason the common 
morals have to be- supported by legislation 
or organization. In any case, it still 
depends upon the morals to a great extent. 
The best laws and organizations have but 
Httle effect if they do not correspond to 
the general sense of justice. Please accept 
tlie word of a jurist that the authority of 
the law only goes so far as people are 
willing to support it and adhere to its 

The sairie holds true for organizations 
which -just like the laws-are not natural 
phenomena, but the work of men. In spite 
of this they can be very useful in removing 
hindrances and difficulties in individual 

Another factor is that the veiy 
occupation with the question of a fair and 
suitable regulation contributes in no mean 
way to a deepening and intensification of 
the sense of justice for the needs of the 
blind. For this reason we should demand 
concrete regulations in individual 
countries-as far as these are not now in 
force in order to obtain a guarantee for 
the realization of this right-referring to 
the recognition of the right to work and 
its pubUc sanction The regulation called 
for in an individual case depends upon the 
circumstances in the specific country 
concerned and, therefore, one can make 
no general statements valid for all of the 
cases. An exchange of opinions and 
experiences is, however, of utmost 
importance since it may help to find the 
appropriate regulation for a particular 
country. But, apart from this, we must 
strive-by means of accomplishments and 
enlightment-to bring about a much more 
accurate and comprehensive image of the 
blind in the public mind while attempting 
to abolish the prejudices against, and 
embarrassment felt toward the blind-both 
of which are still very prevalent. We 
ourselves can contribute a great deal by 
our behavior and appearance. Even today 
the iinportance of the public image of the 
blind for their position in society may be 
clearly demonstrated by a comparison of 
the occupations pursued preferentially by 
the blind in various countries. The result 
of this is that occupations considered to 
be particularly suitable for the blind in 
one country are, on the other hand, held 
to be absolutely unfit for the bhnd in 
another. This is naturally not due to the 
nature of the handle ap-which is the same 
in all cases-but solely to the differing 
conceptions of a blind person to be found 


not only among the sighted but of coarse 
also among the blind as well. 
Unfortunately there are also examples of 
prejudice being transmitted from one 
countrj' to another. Therefore, it is all the 
more important tliat we pay heed to such 
doings and attempt to counter them. 

The realization of the right to work is 
an indication of the degree in which the 
blind are actually integrated into a specific 
society. This, however, must be, and 
remain, our ever-present goal. 

* * * :S 


Joshua Watson 

[Reprinted from Tlic Baltimore Afro-American] 

Federal efforts to cut down inflation 
have apparently resulted in unemployment 
for many blind workers in Baltimore. The 
workers, in an exclusive intcmew with the 
/it'.-o, recently put the blame on the 
Maryland Workshop for the Blind, Present 
and former employees of the workshop 
blasted the organization with charges of 
discrimination and "unfair" employment 

Officials of the organization, 
however, say the layoffs and wage cuts are 
due to insufficient funds. 

All of the blind persons interviewed 
stated that they were "laid off by tlie 
Maryland Workshop for the Blind for 
various reasons and that there are dozens 
more suffering the same conditions 

"You don't get any employment 
compensation when you are laid off," said 
Mrs. Mai-garet Thompson, an employee of 
30 years with the workshop. Mrs. 
Thompson sews mailing bags, government 
aprons, and medical drapes at the 

workshop. She claims her work week was 
reduced to three days with a recurring loss 
in wages. 

"After 30 years of working, there is 
no security at all," said Mrs. Thompson. 

Her husband, Ralph Thompson, was 
laid off on February 13, and he was an 
employee for over 20 years. A hard 
worker, Mr. Thompson stated that he 
worked on his own time doing chair 
caning, and the supervisors at the 
workshop didn't want to give him the 
money made while chair caning. "They 
gave me trainmg money," said Mr. 
Thompson, "but they didn't want to pay 
me for the money made on my own time. 
"I made more money on my own time 
than I made in training time and, to 
compromise, they took some of my 
training hours away and this reduced my 

Mr. Thompson's co-worker, Sylvester 
Brown, is considered a top-notch chair 
caner whom supervisors constantly ask 


questions concerning the trade. Yet, it was 
learned from Mr. Brown, tliat "ciiair 
caning is all I know" and that the 
employee of 23 years (Mr. Brown) was 
laid off recently when no work in chair 
caning was found for him. They won't let 
me learn another trade," Mr. Brown 

Since 1937 Mrs, Louise Root had 
been employed by the MWFB and, on the 
Friday before Christmas, she too was laid 
off. Mrs, Root, said "I think it is unfair 
that sighted workers at the workshop get 
10 paid holidays a year, yet the workshop 
can't afford to subsidize the bUnd." 

Alfred Stebbins, a worker for the 
MWFB for the past 20 years, also said his 
wages were cut from $66 per week to $36 
per week recently. They made me a 
working foreman, but they didn't treat me 
equal," said Mr. Stebbins. RecalHng his 
plight, Mr. Stebbins said, "In January, 
they 'raised' my salai-y $15, but they 
reduced my working days to three days a 
week, which amounted to a salary of $24 
weekly. Under such wages, I had to sign 
up for disability." Afterwards Mr. 
Stebbins remembers that his salary was 
raised to $60 and his work week 
lengthened to five days. This occurred a 
few days after his pastor, the Rev John 
Scott, pastor at West Baltimore Baptist 
Church, had a meeting with George Park, 
executive vice president of MWFB, 

Bill McKeown, a stand operator for 
27 years at MWFB, said that he was laid 
off in December, 1969 because his 
supervisors felt he wasn't doing his job 
adequately. "I was taken off the candy 
stand," said Mr. McKeown, "because the 
vending department felt that people were 
stealing from me because I am blind. They 

claimed they were losing money." Mr. 
McKeown said he has also been denied 
admission to the worksliop to talk to 
former co-workers. 

A partial list of the complaints 
against the MWFB are: 

1. The Workshop is hiring a large 
percentage of sighted persons (over and 
above the necessaiy inspectors) to do 
work that the blind could do. 

2. There are also sighted, 
non-handicapped persons working in the 
sewing room and other departments; blind 
workers, who are not so easily 
employable, have been laid off. 

3. There ai^e otherwise handicapped 
people employed there, mentally retarded, 
etc., when they have workshops of their 
own. The Workshop for the Blind is 
State-aided mainly to help the blind. 

4. The salary cuts have been so severe 
that it is all but impossible to live on such 
a low wage . 

5. It is felt that there are too many 
supervisors. They and other workers 
suspect that the ratio is probably 3 
workers to 1 supervisor. 

Still another worker, Mrs. Dorothy 
Stebbins, Mr. Stebbins' wife, showed the 
Afro a letter from the U. S. Department of 
Labor which said that the MWFB owed 
her back pay of $143.89. Mrs. Thompson 
had a similar letter with figures of $142.60 
and Mr. McKeown had another letter 
showing a total of $832.04 owed in pay. 
"I know of one employee whom the 
MWFB owes $1,000 back pay." said 
George Cooper, a former employee at the 

workshop who now works at St. Agnes 

Citing another problem in the hiring 
of mentally retai"ded personnel, Mr. 
Cooper stated that the "mentally retarded 
won't protest and this is the reason tliey 
are hired. I know one mentally retarded 
worker who is making 40 cents an hour at 
the workshop. The Maiylarid Workshop 
for the Blind would rather fire three blind 
persons and hire one sighted." 

Furthermore. Mrs. Isabella 
McKeown. a blind medical typist for St. 
Agjies Hospital and Mr. McKeown's wife, 
reported that even though the workshop 
had closed the broom shop, mop-making 
siiop and the chair caning department, the 
Baltimore shop has been sending work to 
employees in Cumberlajid and Salisbury. 
"Pretty soon blind workere in Baltimore 
will need a cup and a corner to beg on," 
said Mrs. McKeown. The situation is bad." 
Mrs McKeown stated that the bhnd 
workers will "even picket the Maiyland 
Workshop for the Blind, if necessary." 

On the other hand, George Park, 
executive vice president of the MWFB. 
said that "we do have a problem. Most of 
the work we do is for the federal 
government, and we just don't have the 
job orders to fill at the present time. I 
suppose the government is attempting to 
cut down on inflation and is limiting its 
contracts to the workshop." 

Commenting on the layoffs of blind 
personnel. Mr. Park stated, "We try to 
keep as many blind people working as 
possible, but there are days when we don't 
have the work. Most of the jobs are done 
on a piece work basis, and it is just that 
the jobs are not here." 

Speaking of work that is being 
transferred to workshops in Cumberland 
and Salisbuiy, Mr. Park said that the "jobs 
couldn't be done here." 

Mr. Park, responding to the issue of 
back pay to the blind workers, said 'we 
have had a record keeping problem, but 
that wasn't done willfully, and the 
workers are being paid." 

Free State Federation of the BHnd 
P. O. Box 1084 
Baltimore, Maryland 21203 

Mr, Robert Moran, Administrator 
Division of Wages, Hours 
and Public Contracts 
Department of Labor 
Washington, D. C. 

Dear Mr. Moran: 

Per the enclosed article, the strikingly 
apparent gravity of the grievances 
expressed by the current and former 
employees of the Maryland Workshop for 
the Blind, and the even more obviously 
apparent, and 1 may add, offhanded and 
callously uninformative manner in which 
these grievances are treated by the 
administrators of the Maryland Workshop 
for the Blind, furnish ample reason or 
cause for an investigation in depth of the 
whole "unallowable situation" as it now 

If you agree that such an 
investigation is sorely needed in bringing 
into the light the true status re: 
employer-employee relationships at the 
Maryland Workshop for the Bhnd, we the 
officers and members of the Free State 

Federation of the Blind, respectfully urge 
you to make it an exlTaustive investigation 
with full participation as witnesses of all 
parties concerned. 

Since this is a bread and butter, 
subsisting and survival, as well as personal 
dignity and poignant discrimination 
matter, your attending to this matter witli 

decisive promptness will be sincerely 

Veiy truly yours, 

John T. McCraw, President 

Executive Board 

Free State Federation of tlie Blind 

:|-. :>:*** 


Judy Wilkinson 

Blind people often dishke motels 
because the wide open spaces and 
complicated grounds sometimes make 
traveling about quite difficult. The lovely 
Holiday Inn proved a delightful exception 
to the rule; only the room numbering 
system remained a mystery, and no one 
accidentally wound up in the swimming 

By early Friday evening at the 
Holiday Inn at Stockton, the bustle 
accompanying all Council conventions had 
begun. Those attending the White Cane 
Week and Fundraising Committee meeting 
learned that White Cane Week activities 
are well underway and that the candy sale 
went according to expectations. Later in 
the evening, the Resolutions Committee 
met to consider several resolutions; some 
loyal souls stayed from beginning to end 
while others, including ever-increasing 
numbers of new arrivals put in 
appearances throughout the evening. 
Perhaps the only people not attending the 
open Resolutions Committee hearing were 

the hard workers serving on the 
Credentials Committee as it met to 
prepare the official list of voting delegates 

Tm told--(I should get up so 
early )-that the Executive Committee's 
breakfast meeting was as popular as ever 
among those Council members with strong 
stomachs and weak hangovers. 

Even I was in the room, if somewhat 
less than fully awake, when Saturday's 
general session began. Following the 
invocation, flag salute, opening 
announcements and roll call of delegates. 
President Tony Mannino gave an account 
of the Council's difficulties with the San 
Bernardino Chapter. Because of the 
activities of a few people, the Council was 
receiving a bad name in the area; however, 
efforts are already underway to 
reconstitute the local chapter in order to 
overcome the present situation. 

For the rest of the morning state 
politics was in the air. At 10:30 we 


welcomed Stockton's State Senator Allen 
Short, a long-time friend of the blind in 
California. He showed he truly was a 
friend in that he didn't feel nervously 
obhgated-as our guest speakers often 
do-to relate evei-ything he said to the 
blind. He showed how varied his work is 
by discussing a whole range of current bills 
representing interests not only of his own 
constituents, but of Califomians in 

The next speaker realized that 
tliough blind, many of us were registered 
voters. Consequently, Mr, Chaiies O'Brien, 
.■\ssistant Attorney General, State of 
California, wiio is running for the office of 
attorney general, spoke out strongly on 
the topical issues of law and order in this 
state. Unlike many today, he remembers 
that the law should be the servant rather 
than the master of the people. 

Nelson, Supervisor of Counseling at the 
Reception Guidance Center, Chino, we 
were brought up to date concerning some 
of the developments in this area. 

Sylvia Siegal, Director of the 
Association of California Consumers, gave 
a down-to-earth talk urging us to join the 
organized consumers movement. 

The session closed witli a speech 
dehvercd by one of the most distinguished 
and honored guests attending the 
convention: Mr. Rienzi Alagiyawanna, 
President of tiie International Federation 
of the Blind, told of the IFB around the 
world, reminding us that only tlirough a 
united, sustained effort could interests of 
the blind throughout the world be 
promoted. Twenty nations are represented 
in tlie International Federation of the 

Following adjournment, Orientation 
Center for the Blind and Ciilifomia School 
for the Blijid Alumni held their usual 
luncheon meetings. If the OCB luncheon 
was anything like CSB Alumni's, the 
business meeting was so far down on the 
agenda that we never really got around to 

The afternoon's festivities began with 
a discussion of current happenings in 
Washington, D. C, presented by Perry 
Sundquist-editor of some magazine or 

As the weekend continued, all of us 
became better informed citizens and. 
hopefully, better human beings because of 
some of the fine speeches we heard. Every 
Califomian should be aware of the serious 
situation in the State's correctional 
mstitutions, and thanks to Mr. Edwin 

For a number of people, the business 
of the day was not yet over. Credit union 
members attended an important meeting 
at v.hich officers were elected, while 
students attended a meeting to discuss the 
extent and nature of services luid facilities 
for students in the State, information 
being gathered for a NFB Student Division 
survey. As might be expected, the favorite 
topic of the meeting was the Department 
of Rehabilitation. 

The business of the evening took the 
form of pleasure; an outdoor bar served 
drinks during the balmy early evening, and 
the dinner which followed was excellent. 
At the banquet, Mr. George Callas. former 
Council member, awarded $250 
scholarships on behalf of the San Bruno 
Lions Club to four students. Responding 
to the President's call, donations on behalf 
of chapters and individuals as well were 


made to the Newel Perry Scholarship 

Then Master-of-Ceremonies AI 
Chastain introduced the speaker of the 
evening, Mr. Thomas Brigham, Dean, 
School of Social Welfare, Fresno State 
College. Two years ago, this articulate 
gentleman delivered one of the finest 
speeches I have ever heard. It is difficult to 
equal such a speech, but we were certainly 
not disappointed. He reminded us of the 
points he had made in that earlier speech 
and indicated that welfare conditions, if 
anytliing, are worse today because of an 
insensitive State Administration. He said 
the danger of the possible enactment of 
inhumane, repressive measures has never 
been greater. However, with such spirited 
men as Mr. Brigham fighting for the rights 
of welfare recipients and workers, and 
working to change misconceptions and 
erroneous ideas held by the majority, we 
may weather even this storm. 

Convention Sunday is a real challenge 
in that everyone is so tired, the activities 
must be super interesting to keep ever^'one 
awake. On this particular Sunday, the 
challenge was more than met! Charles 
Smalley, Chairman of the Resolutions 
Committee, read the resolutions which the 
delegates then adopted. 

The highpoint of the morning was a 
speech given by Mr. Bonifacio Yturbide, 
Attorney-at-law, in which he reviewed the 
history of the case, initiated by the 
Council on behalf of all the adult aid 
categories, against the State Welfare 
Department for its intention to compute 
the cost-of-living increase based on 
arbitrarily-established elements of the 
cost-of-living index. Mr. Yturbide, the 
lawyer for the four representative adults, 

reminded us that although this battle had 
been won, he felt it would be only the 
first in a long series, considering the 
conservative nature of the Governor and 
tiie electorate. Thus three speakers. 
Senator Short, Dean Brigham and Mr. 
Yturbide suggested that the atmosphere in 
the State is somber indeed wliere social 
welfare is concerned. 

Following the lunch break, we heard 
about another victory for the blind: the 
IFB was somewhat richer because of fatter 
and un fatter blind people who 
participated in the miss-a-meal contest 
instituted last fall. Prizes were awarded to 
Mr.-a-meal, Sid Urena, Mrs.-a-meal, 
Mildred Woods, and finally to Miss-a-meal 
herself, Lynda Bardis. 

After Sybil Westbrook gave her 
treasurer's report, President Mannino 
announced after many years of semce, 
Sybil had submitted her resignation. At 
this time, tiie Council passed its final 
resolution commending Sybil for the job 
she had done. The membership then 
elected Charles Smalley, Treasurer. 

Muzzy Marcelino, who is Chairman 
of the NFB Endowment Fund Committee, 
held the tloor for a time sohciting pledges 
and contributions to the Endowment 
Fund. About $125.00 was pledged! about 
SI 30.00 was collected then and there: and 
the Council President also pledged in 
behalf of the Council the sum of $250.00, 
all of which will be given to the 
Endowment Fund. Anyone who plans to 
attend subsequent conventions of the 
Council should come prepai^ed to 
contribute to this great cause. 

Elections continued as Mr. Anthony 
Mannino was chosen delegate and Mr. 


Heni-y Negrete alternate delegate to the 
NFB Convention in Minneapolis. 

Tluis another convention, filled with 

busy activity, speeches and discussions, 
and renewed friendships came to an end. 

* :{: * * :ii H< * -iJ * -H -H iK 


Frank H. Smith 

[Editor's Note: The following special editorial is reprinted from the Gem State (Idaho) 
News Letter.] 

The word "militant" has of late 
become somewhat of a profane expression 
among Americans. Because of the actions 
of a few and the focusing upon these few 
by the mass media, many pereons have 
come to see militancy as a threat to their 
person, their property and their 
constitutional rights. As a reaction to this 
connotation of the word militant many 
persons have vowed to become 
anti-militant: to shun tlie word, to shun 
any act tliat might be constnied as 
mililanr and to work to neutralize any 
militancy around them. However, any 
movement toward organized or active 
reaction against mihtancy is in itself 

We are militant. How are we 
militant? We are militant in that we belong 
to the organized blind, the Gem State 
Blind and the National Federation of the 

In fact, we are militant even if we do 
not consider our membership in these 
groups. To be exact we are militant 
whenever we dare to think that blind 

people can actually be anything but 
shut-ins or can do anything but vegetate in 
seclusion and live off the charity of the 
societx' around us. We are militant in that 
we are going against the concept of 
blindness that has existed for thousands of 
years. We ore trying to cliange minds 
about what blindness is and what bUnd 
people can do. Every time we step outside 
our door into the sunshine, every time we 
pick up a white cane, even.' time we go to 
work cind draw a pay check we are taking 
part in militant action. The challenging of 
the accepted way and substituting 
sometliing new or at least different is 

As the organized blind we are 
militant because of the methods we use to 
achieve our goals. The violence that has 
turned so many ears away from anything 
that even sounds like the word militant is 
not what is meant here. Definitely not. 
Rather, it is the active seeking for change 
by legal, moral and constmctive means. 
We are militant because we write to and 
talk to our legislative representatives, 
agency executives and any others who 


make decisions affecting the blind. We 
challenge in the courts those who would 
discriminate against us or would rob us of 
our chance to make an honest living. We 
even introduce the work for passage of 
laws that would help us secure better 
opportunity, more security and true 
equality for ourselves. Yes, we are militant 
and the growing amount of success that 
blind people are enjoying now in our state 
is a result of this militant approach. 

We are now, as we have been in the 
past and will probably continue to be for 
many years to come, threatened. Yes, 
threatened by those who would seek to 
take from us our hard won rights and 
relegate us further into second-class 
citizenship. Those in high places have 
sown the seeds and left the harvest to 
anyone who would imprison the bhnd in 
the abyss from which the blind were able 
to finally remove themselves only a few 
short months ago. 

Although we have not yet been 
mentioned by name in writing, we are 
dangerously close to being included in the 
plan some men are supporting wiiich 
would put almost all social and 
rehabilitative services imder the control of 
one department and possibly one man. It 
is desperately hoped that this fight will 
never come to a head as far as the blind 
are concerned. We hope that in the future 
someone can say truthfully that we are 
only crying "wolf. However, we must be 
prepared at all times to defend what has 
proved to be of such great help in dealing 
with the nuisance called blindness. We 
must be prepared to use the tools of 
militancy in the style of the Gem State 
Blind and the National Federation of the 
Blind. We must be continually aware, 
communicating well and carefully 
informed as to what is going on within the 
domed cubicles at Boise and be ready to 
put our militancy to work on those who 
represent us there. 


Harvey Patton 

[Reprinted from the Detroit (Michigan) A^ew5. 

Allen C. Harris is considered an 
excellent sociology teacher and a valuable 
assistant wrestling coach at Dearborn 
Higli. This information would not be 
newsworthy if it weren't for the fact that 
Harris, 23, is bhnd and uses a dog to guide 
shim through the school building. 

Receiving his teaching certificate 

from the School of Education at Wayne 
State University in 1966, where he later 
earned a master's degree in the social 
sciences, Harris threads his way to classes 
at Dearborn with the aid of Prince, mostly 

"He teaches five classes in sociology 
and is regarded as excellent by the 


students, with whom he has great 
rapport," said Thomas McLennan, 
assistant principal. 

"He is also a fine wresthng coach," 
said Jack Johnson, Dearborn athletic 
director. Harris received three letters for 
wrestling at Wayne State at 191 pounds 
despite the fact he was out half his junior 
year and most of- his senior with eye 
trouble and then because of practice 

"I had to drop wrestling to 
concentrate on a practice teaching job at 
Oak Park while still a student," Harris 

Principal Leonaj"d Mazur at Dearborn 
hired him after Harris taught a summer 
session in 1968. 

"I had trouble catching on because of 
my handicap, but Mr. Mazur had faith in 
me," Harris explained. "The Detroit 
pubHc schools would not hire a blind 

It was in 1962 that Hams went blind 
due to a congenital eye condition. He 
attended the Michigan School for the 
Blind and won the state Class B title at 
157 pounds in 1963. "We were the 
smallest school at the state meet while I 
was at Lansing," Harris said "We drew our 
wrestling talent from about 100 students 
in grades nme through twelve, but we won 

tlie Class B title two out of the three years 
I competed." 

Bob Hurley, V/ayne State wrestling 
coach, is a good friend of Hanis. They 
attended tlie state Class A meet at East 
Lansing together last year. 

"Al can understand what is 
happening on the mat with only a few 
words from a companion who can see," 
Hurley said. "He is quick and seems to 
know what a wrestler is doing. That is why 
he can coach. He often wrestles with the 

"1 believe I would be a better 
wrestler now," Harris said. "The mles 
were changed in 1968. A wrestler has to 
keep in contact witli his opponent by 
touching hands. Previously opponents 
could take advantage of the blind by 
slipping behind." 

Deai^bom's head wrestling coach is 
Ed Lanzi, whose team quahfied four 
atliletes for the Class A regional Saturday 
at Ann Arbor Pioneer by taking four 
seconds in a district meet last weekend, 
Harris is enthusiastic over their chances to 
quahfy for the state championships. 

The bhnd teacher is driven to work 
by his wife, Sue, who teaches business 
education and mathematics at 
Murray-WrightHigh in Detroit. 





Dr. Isabelle L. D. Grant 

The day was a scorcher! The air was 
heavy with sand, sunshine and smells. New 
DeUii was not at its best even though it 
was the fall of the year. The 
air-conditioned interior of the conference 
hall offered a welcome reUef. A world 
conference to discuss problems relating to 
the welfare of the bhnd was in session. 

"Memsab," said the student usherette 
to me, "Memsab, there's a hunger-strike of 
blind people outside on the street. Many 
blind people are there." 

It required but a few minutes to nm 
downstairs with the Jielp of the handrail, 
and out into the street where, sure 
enougli, about forty blind persons had 
gathered in protest to the existing 
conditions and attitudes regarding the 
miUions of blind persons in India today. 

The leader of the hunger-strikers, a 
young blind man in his late twenties, was 
obviously the main spokesman, though 
when once the frigidity of new 
conversation with strangers was broken, 
questions and answers went flying thick 
and fast. The English of the first 
spokesman was inordinately good. Those 
with a lesser command of the language had 
their Punjabi and Hindi translated by their 
more loquacious friends. 

"Madam, what are you doing here?" 

"I am attending the conference for 
the welfare of the blind." 

"What welfare?" 

This telling question nonplussed me. After 
all I thought, what welfare is emanating 
from such conferences held under the 
aegis of sighted people claiming to 
understand the problems of blind people 
in a sighted society. 

"Why are you hunger-striking, Mr. 

"Because in this country, the blind 
are not given justice, not even a chance. 
People on the streets are afraid to touch 
us. You see, we are blind." 

"Yes, Mr. Dasgupta, but I too am 
blind," I said with my hand on his 
shoulder. "But I still do not understand 
why you are hunger-striking! What good 
can you do our fellow blind if you are 
weak from hunger?" I asked. 
"Demonstrating as you are doing is one 
thing," I said, "but sapping your energy 
through hunger is another." 

''No, Madam, you wouldn't 
understand," Mr. Dasgupta said. "This is 
our Indian way of telling people of the 
injustices meted out to us blind people." 

"Tell me more about yourself Mr. 
Dasgupta," I urged. 

"Well, you see. Madam, I have 
attended the Delhi University. I have a 
Ph.D. degree. I have studied with success 
for eight years; completed all the work 
prescribed; received the degree and there's 
nothing for me but beggary!" 


"But your country needs your 
training, your ability, for the cliildren in 
your country as in mine need teachers." 

"Ah! Lady, but you see I ani blind!" 

"But can't you write letters 
anywhere and everywhere to state your 
case and ask for interviews'?" 

■'Madam, I have written to every 
person I can think of! Any normally 
seeing person would, after the completion 
of a doctorate degree, have been assured a 
job. The hundreds of job applications I 
have submitted have been thrown into the 
dustbin. You see I am blind! One 
university agreed to employ me, but they 
added the rider that a supernumerary 
would have to be employed to sit with me 
in tlie classroom." I shuddered as tlie 
young man spoke. I was familiar with all 
he said. 

"Well, Memsab, the university would 
not do that for it would cost them too 
much money," he said. 

My hand still rested on his shoulder. 
By now the crowd was growing. I was 
afraid the police might come and disband 
tlie group, and I had not yet had enough 
of Dr. Dasgupta's story. I stumbled against 
the charpai, the httle cot where the leader 
slept during the nights of the 
hunger-strike, since there were many cots 
ai-ound, and flat places under the trees on 
the roadside where sleeping would be 
possible. I edged closer to Dr. Dasgupta, 
feehng the shade of the tree on my arm, 
when my other arm was forcibly shaken 
by another of the hunger-strikers. 

"And who ai^e you?" he asked in an 
excited, vibrant, friendly voice. 

"My name is Isabelle Grant and I 
have come from Los Angeles, California." 

"Isabelle L. D. Grant, 851 West 40th 
Place, Los Angeles, California, 90037!" he 
screamed almost beside himself. 

It was K. K. Sharma. He had been 
one of my correspondents for the last 
three years. What a strange, but happy 
coincidence! It was hke a family reunion. 
Even Dr. Dasgupta laughed. But as time 
was passing and the hunger-strike 
continuing we decided that hunger was 
not a weapon blind persons should use to 
make their voice heard, and their needs 

By this time, an official from the 
conference upstairs had arrived on the 
scene. When, I did not know. Exchanging 
addresses, and promises to write, the party 
was over! 

Three letters have arrived since my 
return and it is but three months since our 
conference of the blind, in which only 
Wind people participated, and spoke their 
piece. According to one of his letters, Dr. 
Dasgupta is now a lecturer in one of the 
local colleges without a supernumerary. 
He can attend to his own clerical duties as 
part of his job; that is his responsibility. 
And slowly but steadily people in 
positions of management of human 
resources and job placement are beginning 
to shed their traditional ignorance of 
automatic rejection of bhnd persons on 
the basis of bUndness alone. 



Clark Redfield 

[Reprinted courtesy of the New York News. ] 

Sharp had had one of the busier, 
more grinding days of his busy, grinding 
trade. He worked for a radio station, 
writing news, one of those stations whose 
news broadcasts are always preceded by 
blaring, musical fanfares and dehvered by 
those who read aloud what Sharp put on 
paper, in a tone close to a shout, no 
matter how big or little the news item 
might be. 

The stories had come hard and fast 
that day, one on top of the other, the 
news editor grabbing the takes and ripping 
them out of the typewriters as fast as 
Sharp and the other writers could get the 
words down. The station had become 
what New York's afternoon newspapers 
had been when there were so many of 
them, and no radio or TV. Rush, nish, 
rush! Get it done, fast, and get it right the 
first time! What are we paying you for? 

One of his last stories before he left 
his office that afternoon had been about a 
water main break that had shut down the 
BMT subway from 14th Street south far 
into Brooklyn, where, of course, he was 
headed'when he. left, because he took the 
subway to the Brooklyn tenninal of the 
Long Island Railroad, which eventually led 
to home and peace, surcease from rush 
and deadline. 

His office was downtown, in the 
financial district. When he stepped into 
the street, he saw the brown, foul river 
gushing from the mouth of the BMT 

station and the men with the suctioning 
hoses working frantically to get the water 
out. The IRT line to Brooklyn was a block 
away and upliill and when he left there 
had been no word that there was anything 
wrong with the IRT. He took that subway. 

The IRT plattbrm had a tlood of its 
own. It was spilling over with confused 
people, refugees from the stricken BMT, 
who kept bumping into regular IRT users 
and asking if this train went to Brooklyn. 
Yes, it did; did you stay on for Atlantic 
Avenue? Yes, you stayed on for Atlantic 
Avenue Did you stay on for Pacific 
Street? No you changed at Atlantic for 
Pacific Street. He managed to get on a 
train that had some standing room. 

Two miniskirted girls got on with 
him and as the car began to move, its 
lights dinimed and they saw something on 
the floor and one of them squealed in 

Sharp looked. Other men and women 
looked. On the floor, its head between its 
paws, its eyes wary, was a dog. The dog 
had its rear quarters next to a young 
woman's legs. Sharp looked at the woman 
and understood at once. So did other 
riders. A man next to him reached out and 
tapped the girl who had squealed. 

"Miss, the lady is bhnd. That's her 
dog," the man said. 

"That's a seeing-eye dog. Haven't you 


ever seen a seeing-eye dog before?" Sharp 
said. People who panicked easily in 
situations like this always annoyed him. 
Some of his annoyance got into the tone 
of his voice; the girl looked back at him as 
thougli he were a masher, sniffed and 
began talking to her friend. 

The train ground into the Brooklyn 
tunnel. People were trying to read their 
newspapers but the lights kept dimming 
and blinkuig and most of the riders gave 
up trying to read. 

But the blind girl was reading a 
Braille book, and she went on reading in 
the gloom, her fingers gUding across the 
raised Hnes, fingers sensitive as a snake 
seeking prey in the grass; fingers that 
would stop, occasionally, perhaps at a 
difficult word or, as he noticed by 
watching her face, a phrase that touched 
her. Sometimes, when she paused, the 
flicker of a smile would cross the unseeing 
face. She read on and the train kept going. 

At the Borough Hall station in 
Brooklyn, most of the riders, perhaps 
fearful of a tot;il power failure farther 
down the line, got off. There was a seat 
clear, next to the blind girl. Shaip looked 
at one of the miniskirted girls and gestured 
toward the seat; the girl looked away. He 
took the seat. 

The dog glanced up at him It was 
not a sliephcrd. as those dogs usually were. 
It was black and shaggy and looked like an 
attenuated, black Irish wolfliound. 
Satisfied that Sharp meant no harm to its 
mistress, the dog rested its head between 
its paws again. But the animal kept 
looking up and around and, for a mad 
instant, Sharp wondered if the dog knew 
what stations they were passing and would 

nudge its mistress to get up at the riglit 

The girl's reading fascinated Sharp. 
He had, like many news writers who were 
not hacks, sold short stories to magazines 
and some had been published in 
anthologies of Best Stories of the Yeai-. He 
wondered, again madly, if she might be 
reading something of his. 

The left hand lield tlie upper corner 
of the page as the right glided over the 
Braille. The right hand would feel the 
bottom of the page, perhaps for a foHo 
number, and when she turned the page the 
left hand would check the top of the next 
page before she read on. 

The train ground on, past Hoyt 
Street, where it faltered and the lights 
dimmed lower. Then it bucked and started 
again and nmibled into Nevins Street, the 
stop before Atlantic. It went all tlie way 
into the station. 

"Nevins Street," the cai^'s P.A. 
system grated, and then the voice slowed 
down into a dying bass like a record 
running down on an old, spring-operated 
gramophone: " A-A-t-1-a-n-t-i-c 
n-e-e-ex . . ." and stopped, and there was a 
blinding blue-white flash aiid a noise like a 
clap of thunder after lightning, and the 
train and the station were plunged into 
total, inky black. 

A girl screamed. 

A man shouted: "Stop that! Don't 

"My God! Where are we?" 

"Quiet! Don't panic!" 


Sharp felt tlie dog rise. Seeking its 
mistress, its body touched Sharp's legs; the 
animal was trembling. People were nishing 
back and forth in the car, crashing into 
each other, falling, shouting, screaming. 

"The doors are half open! We can get 
out!" a woman called from somewhere in 
the dark. Sharp felt concerned for the 
blind girl. 

"Do you know where you are, miss?" 
he said touching her arm, 

"Yes," she said, astonishingly calm in 
the maelstrom of fear about her. "Nevins 
Street. This is where I get off." 

Magically, at tlie sound oi' iier voice, 
at what she was saying, the panic in the 
car was evaporating. They were all 
hstening to lier. 

"Could you . . . could you lead us 
out, then?" Sharp said. 

"Certainly," she said, getting up. 
"Here. Take my hand." He did so. 

"Listen, everybody!" Shaip called 
out into the ink. "The blind lady is going 
to lead us out. She knows the way. I'll 
take her hand; somebody else take my 
hand and somebody else take that person's 
hand, and we'll get out of here." 

"Can you get out of the station all 

"Of course," she said. "What's 

And it came to him. Of course she 
couldn't know what had happened! The 
darkness meant nothing to her. Everyone 
else in the car was blind, but being already 
blind, she was not. 

Tliere was some shuffling in the dark 
and then he felt a small, soft hand toucli 
his. He held it firmly. "All right, miss?" 
Sharp said. 

"Come on. Follow me," the Wind girl 
said. "Look out for the door, and 
platform. There's a space you have to step 
over." They began leaving the car, a queer, 
midnight caravan of souls, the blind 
leading the blind. 

"All the power's failed. We can't see 
our hands in front of our faces," Sharp 

"I thought it might be something like 
that. She's scared," the girl said. 

"She? Who?" 

"My dog. She wants to lead me and 
now she can't," the girl said. "I only took 
her along today because I was going 
shopping in Manhattan and I didn't know 
the neighborhood." 

The blind girl guided them to the 
platform and past the benches on it, 
slowly, carefully, passing warnings of what 
lay aliead via Sharp. "Here are the stairs. 
There are 14 of them. Then you turn riglit 
and there are 12 more. Then we turn to 
the right again," she would say. The line 
went through the station, up the stairs and 
finally got to the turnstiles. 

"This is the exit," she said. She went 
through and Sharp went through, feeling 
the turnstile strike his legs and give. Now 
there was a dim light from above; the last 
stairway, to the street. 


People going by on the street above 
stopped and watched opcn-moutlied as the 
strange line came out, led by a girl with a 
dog. Finally, they were all out. Cops were 
rushing up from ever>'where. 

After the nothingness of tlie hole 
below the street, the daylight was 
dazzling. Sharp found that the other hand 
holding !iis was attached lo one of the 
niinisliirted girls, th.e one who had looked 
insulted when he had told her the girl was 

Tlie miniskirted aid smiled at him. 

"Thanks, mister," she said. 

"Don't thank me. Thank her," Shaip 
said. He turned. "Are you ;dl ri . . ." but 
tlie blind girl ;uid her dog had vanished 
into the crowd. Now, why had he let her 
do that? This was a hell of a stoiy. And he 
didn't have her name! He ran to a phone 
booth and called the radio station. 

Siu-e enough, the news editor agreed 
that it was a good story. And sure enough, 
he bawled Shaip out for not getting the 
blind girl's name; what kind of a reporter 
was he, anyway? 


Dr. Jacob Freid 

[Editor's Note: The following Editor's Letter is reprinted from the March, 1970 issue of the 
Jewisli Braille Review, publication of the Jewish Braille Institute of America of which Dr. 
Freid is Executive Director.] 

The quarter century smce World War 
II has been among the most critical and 
chmactic in the history of man since it 
first began to be written in cuneiform in 
Sumer and in hieroglyphics in the Nile 
Valley millenia ago. In the history of the 
blind, since Jacobus tenBroek of blessed 
memory became the Moses leading the 
bhnd from bondage towards the Promised 
Land of equality of opportunity, 
education and employment, it marks the 
period of greatest progress. 

These were the years of the great 
explosion in technology, civil rights, 
health and welfare, population. 

coiporation growth, culture, education, 
level of living, crime, violence, drugs and 
environmental pollution. Today we ai^e a 
science and space oriented culture which 
still holds out to many the promise of 
freedom and a better hfe. Emma Lazarus 
in her poem "The New Colossus," said: 

Give me your tired, your poor. 

Your huddled masses yearning to breathe 

The wretched refuse of your teeming 

Send these, the homeless tempest-tos't 

to me, 
I lift my lamp beside the golden door! 


And so the United States represented 
to the downtrodden iuid the persecuted of 
the old world a new land of the second 
cliance, where the old deprivations gave 
way to new opportunities. The agencies 
for the blind were analogous to the old 
world fiefdoms and baronetcies-bless the 
squire and his relations and keep us in our 
proper stations. The blmd were the 
subjects of benevolent patemaHsm--they 
were not accorded the equal status of 
participant first-class citizens with a voice 
in determining the decisions, policies and 
programs that affected their lives so 
critically. To the bhnd the National 
Federation of the Blind was the road to 
the second chance and the new 
opportunities to the good life. Robert 
Scott's book, The Making of Blind Men, 
empliasizes the problems that still remain 
to be overcome. 

Despite its ills, this nation has 
improved the conditions of life for a 
liigher percentage of its population than 
almost any other nation despite the 
remaining blots of poverty, racism and 
lack of socialized medicine. Material 
well-being is not the only criterion. In its 
compound of general freedoms, available 
opportunities, protection of the individual 
and philanthropic impulse, this nation 
leads the world. 

back on integration and is discoLuiting the 
Negro vote in favor of the votes of 
Southerners and George Wallace 
supporters. To a Martian it must look odd. 

Historical accident, natural resources 
and sheer luck, plus tremendous initiative, 
inventiveness, ingenuity and application in 
exploiting these matters have catapulted 
us all, sighted and blind, into the Great 
Leap. But it is not yet finished and we do 
not know where we wUl land or even 
where we want to land. 

The historical bridge and the moral 
limits of the experience of this generation 
were defined in World War II. 
Totalitarianism, freedom, genocide, 
courage, passion, decency, most of our 
conceptions of idealism-and its opposite, 
cynicism-date from that war. It was a 
time of conformity when everyone looked 
and acted alike or tried to. The Chick 
tenBroek radical type was a maverick 
pilloried and anathematized as a threat to 
things as they are by the agencies for the 
bhnd and their supporters. He was a boat 
rocker. The sum of hope was to be 
adjusted and popular. The blind were 
"clients" of the agencies who took what 
was given imquestioningly and thankfully 
without a why or wherefore and did as 
they were told to do. 

And yet it is also a country with a 
Mafia crypto government of crime 
syndicates, a country engaged in a 
colonialist, imperialist war, a country that 
has to be forcgd inch by inch to preserve 
its natural beauties, clean its air, purify its 
lakes, improve its schools, raze its slums. 
Our youth are often alienated either 
intellectually or criminally. The promise 
of the racial outlook is presently menaced 
by an administration tliat is turning its 

It was a time when telephones, 
subways, Western Union, electric power 
and the U. S. mails worked. John Kennedy 
was the youngest President and when he 
said, "Ask not what your country can do 
for you, but what you can do for your 
country," the youthful ideahsts responded 
and flocked to the Peace Corps in large 
numbers. Since his martyrdom in 1963, 
the bombs dropped on the villages, the 
cops began beating the kids on the head 


while the kids threw hot ties at the cops. 
Tlie Riidd Guards sprang up drawing its 
radicalism from the "System's" violence in 
Vietnam and then claimed to be driven to 
revolutionary violence of it's own, and as 
an act of revolution, turned upon the 
liberal universities. 

Ours was the first group to 
experience the end of the just war against 
the scourge of Hitler Nazism as a romantic 
possibility. There arc no justifications for 
group violence in this country-no outlets 
for idealistic courage, and the decent 
human war. And there aren't likely to be 
any. Atomic weaponry technology has 
made the stakes too high. The Vietnam 
colonial, imperialist war was a complete 
break in moral tenns. The Establishment 
lifted the vocabulaiy of the just war in the 
name of the free world to Vietnam and 
was caught in a lie that could not work 
despite .Johnson's Wax. Radicalism lifted 
the same vocabulary and turned it in the 
name of revolution against the System, 
where it does not work either. The 
nihilists who throw bombs and plant 
explosives are destroyei-s and makers of 
shambles: thev are wreckers, not creators. 

mutates from 1945 Auschwitz to the 1968 
Democratic Convention in Chicago, from 
1945 A-bombing in Hiroshima to 1970 
napalm in Danang, tiie System has 
improved. Terribly and witli stumbling, 
but improved. And there were those like 
Chick tenBroek who pushed themselves 
and their Hazels to the uttennost physical 
and cerebral limits for every inch of that 
improvement. They didn't throw bombs. 
They didn't lake over the agencies. They 
organized themselves as free men in a 
democratic society' of the blind, />> tlie 
blind, ihr the blind, to determine their 
own destiny and to figiit for their right as 
free men to achieve equality' ;ind first class 
citizenship and to lead nomial lives 
give fulfillment to talents, abilities and 

Now as we face the future under 
continuing able and dedicated leadership, 
we address ourselves to the unfinished 
tasks before us to bequeath to our 
posterity in the third millenium A.D. a 
better world for all and particularly for 
the full rights of the blind to achieve the 
American promise of life, liberty and the 
pursuit of happiness. 

Still when a term like violence 

:|: :•! M * 


Samuel K. Wolff 

The New York City Triboro Chapter 
of the NFB solves problems it can deal 
with practically, for it must take into 
account the full time employment of most 

of its members. One member was refused 
entrance into the city's private and pubhc 
swimming pools because she could not see. 
This was a direct violation of the law 


passed by Mayor John V Lindsay's 
administration in January of 1969 which 
made discrimination against the disabled 
illegal. The chapter made a test case of the 
issue and decided, by forcing it to its 
logical conclusion, to open the pools in 
New York City to the blind. 

Exercising his riglit of access to 
public information, the president of the 
chapter obtained a copy of the law from 
the Mayor's office; from the Department 
of Health he obtained a list of parties 
responsible for rimning swimming pools in 
the city. It was hoped that the following 
letter, addressed to the president of the 
discriminatory corporation, would force 
him to take a favorable position. 

October 19, 1969 

Dear Mr. F : 

I asked a manager at your health club 
for an application for membership, and 
questioned him as to the costs of 
belonging to your public faciUty. I was 
denied information as to the costs and 
denied an application I presume because I 
am blind. 

For your information, I am enclosing 
a copy of the New York City Code, as 
amended, which indicates that there was 
an illegal withholding of membership to a 
citizen of New York City, where such 
discrimination against the blind is now 

I am certam, after reading the law 
and being made aware of tliis illegal 
behavior on the part of your corporation, 
you will forward a membership 
application and not flagrantly violate the 
City Code and perpetrate a discriminatory 

I look forward to receipt of a 
membership application to your club, with 
equal status of all other members within 
seven business days, in order to avoid the 
unpleasantness of a public disclosure and 
formal action to protect my civil rights. 


Samuel K. Wolff, President 
N.Y.C. Chapter, NFB 

The pool manager was more willing 
to give out information regarding 
membership when he had received 
instruction from the owner of the pool. 
With an icy reception that was shot full of 
sarcasm, the manager produced a contract 
identical in content with any other 
member's. With the passage of time the 
manager and staff became less hostile and 
less anxious as to how a blind person can 
function. This precedent established by 
the New York City Chapter of the NFB 
helped educate the public about the blind 
and made blind New Yorkers free to use 
city and private pools when they desire to 



Sam Earle 

[Repriuted from Jlie Trentoiiiaii, (Trenton, New Jersey).] 

The coffee shop in the New Jersey 
Motor Vehicle building will soon be 
replaced by vending machines on even,' 
tloor, and the space it now occupies will 
be taken up by a new computer, according 
to Ronald Hcymann, division director. But 
the move will meet some stiff opposition 
from the New Jersey' Commission for the 
Blind and the National Federation of the 
Blind, according to Robert Owens, who 
works for the concession and its manager, 
Arthur Linsinbigler. Both men are 
blind-Owens can see up to 20 feet, which 
means he is "legally blind." Linsinbigler is 
totally blind. 

Heyman said neither would be out of 
a job but did not give details. 

The concession was negotiated for 
and set up by the state commission, a state 
and federally funded organization, then 
Uirned over to Linsinbigler. Owens is not 
buying the computer story, and neither is 
Edward Siei-zega, commission director in 
chai'ge of vending stands, who met with 
Heymann Wednesday. Tlie computer-an 
IBM 360-40-has been in storage for a 
year, Heymann said. Plans reportedly also 
are in the works for a new motor vehicle 
building within a year. "They haven't been 
using it (the computer) for a year," 
Sierzega said, "why can't they wait? . . . 
Or why can't they find other space?" 

Heymann claimed the building at 25 
South Montgomery Street is designed to 
hold 500 employees and is now occupied 

by some 950 persons. "That's the way 
things ai'e everywhere," Sierzega jabbed. 

Owens said he has been he;u-ing 
rumors for more than a year to the effect 
his coffee shop was to be eUminated. He 
said b.e had tried at least three times to 
make an appointment with Heymann to 
"discuss the rumors but was headed off 
by the director's personal secretary. 
Heymann, however, claimed he has always 
had an "open door policy . . . I'd be iiappy 
to talk with him." 

Owens had more to say about 
vending machines-aside from losing liis 
job. The shop now sells coffee, doughnuts, 
fresh sandwiches, cold drinks, milk, ice 
cream, potato chips, pretzels, candy, 
cookies, other pastries and cigarettes. 
Carts are wheeled from office to office, he 
said, and customers also come into the 
first floor shop. "Everybody knows what 
you get out of a machine," Owens said. To 
match the variety he now provides, Owens 
estimated it would take at least eight 
machines. Heymann said he planned to 
have "full-line" vending on every floor. 
There are seven floors. This means, 
according to Owen's figures, some 56 
vending machines would have to be 
installed. New wiring, which Owens 
estimated would cost $4,000, would have 
to be put in to handle the electrical load, 
he said. Owens and Linsinbigler also serve 
the division of Pensions building next 
door. Heymann did not mention any plans 
for that building. 


So far, Sierzga said, "there is no 
formal threat to the business." 

When there is, he predicted, "We'll 

answer it fast enough. . . and you can 
beheve it will be negatively." 



Captain H. J. M. Desai 

Hon. Secretary, National Association for the Blind 

[Editor's Note: The following article reflects current attitudes in Indian rehabilitation and 
was published in Blind Welfare, the publication of the National Association for the Blind, 
>Bombay, India.] 

The concept of rehabilitation is of 
comparatively recent origin. The concept 
mainly developed during World War II. 
When the war was at its peak, hospitals 
were saddled with large numbers of more 
severely disabled people requiring 
prolonged medical attention. However, the 
physical condition of these patients was 
such that simultaneously with medical 
treatment, they could be usefully trained 
and helped in their rehabilitation. The 
minimum time required for hospitalization 
was also fruitfully utilised in evaluating 
the patient, assessing his medical and 
rehabilitation needs and initiating him in 
training aimed to lead to his ultimate and 
total rehabilitation. Thus while treatment 
was continuing, the patient was adjusted 
'.to his disability and assisted to regain 
normalcy. This approach of developing 
rehabilitation services simultaneously with 
medical treatment soon caught the eye 
and began to be increasingly resorted to. 

The tremendous social and economic 
costs of disability as a major cause of 
dependency were increasingly recognised". 
The miracles of modern rehabilitation 
were before the people. It was known that 
by modem methods of rehabilitation, the 
total needs of the disabled would be met 
and they could be substantially assisted in 
regaining their rightful place and status in 
the general community Ufe. Thus, World 
War II provided tremendous impetus to 
the rehabUitation movement. 

For pioneering work in developing 
programs of physical treatment and 
rehabilitation as understood now. great 
credit goes to Dr. Howard A. Rusk and Dr. 
Henry H. Kessler. They mainly 
demonstrated two tilings. Firstly, how 
excellent results could be achieved 
through comprehensive individuahsed 
services. Secondly, that few men are so 
disabled that they cannot leam to use 
their remaining capacities in some kind of 



In the initial stages, most of llie 
Centres were essentially medically 
oriented. The experiment of introducing 
vocational rehabilitation during the 
medical treatment period succeeded so 
well that gradually comprehensive 
vocationally oriented centres developed. A 
little later, the community rehabilitation 
centres, with emphasis on specialised 
services for specialised needs, developed. 


It is accepted that the basic needs of 
the disabled as regards food, clothing, 
shelter, education, employment and 
nomial family and social life are the same 
as those of the seeing. 

Since the basic needs do not differ, it 
is essential that they are developed 
physically, mentally, vocationally and 
socially to take their rigiitful place in 

Hitherto, the attitude of societ>' 
towards the disabled was mainly negative; 
attitudes of pity, charity and misguided 
sympathy. For example, in the case of the 
bhnd, it was believed that with the loss of 
vision, all avenues of acquiring knowledge 
were lost. The negative attitude of the 
family members and the society generally 
were supplemented by the equally 
negative attitude of some of the clients 
themselves. This worsened the position. It 
is imperative that the clients are, from the 
earliest stages, guided to adopt correct 
attitudes and approaches towards their 
own disability. Unless we motivate them 
to develop very positive attitudes, not 
much can come of rehabilitation training. 

Success in motivating the clients and 
developing in them positive attitudes 
means half tlic battle won at the very 
initial stage itself. 


The objective should therefore be to 
restore the client to t!:e fullest normalcy 
and ability. All programs are geared to 
assist the client to develop his total 
personality. Not only is the physical 
disability treated, but everything possible 
is done to treat the emotional, mental or 
social handicaps, if any. With wise 
guidance and counselling and with proper 
training, he regains his rightful place in 
society, both economically ajid socially. 

To make the disabled person nomial 
and productive is the main objective of 
rehabilitation. With this view in mind, the 
immediate and long teiTn objectives should 
be clearly defined. The immediate 
objective of the rehabilitation centre is to 
assist the client in adjusting to his 
handicap and restoring his shattered 
confidence. In tliis process, acquiring 
proficiency in self care, especially in the 
techniques of daily living, is the most 
important. The ultimate objective is to 
provide open and remunerative 
employment and a normal family and 
social life. 

In the process, limitations imposed 
by the disability have got to be accepted 
fully. Every endeavor is made to develop 
the residual abilities. In the case of the 
bhnd, for example, the residual abilities 
are developed through the remaining 
senses of touch, smell, hearing, taste and 
by developing the client's memory and 



Loss of vision is not tlie only loss 
consequent to blindness. The loss of 
independence, the loss of mobility, the 
loss of skills of communications, the loss 
of skills in the techniques of daily living, 
the loss of total personality, all have to be 
fully accepted and overcome by modern 
rehabilitation training. 

The rehabilitation process not only 
shows the way for gradually overcoming 
the losses referred to, but builds up the 
shattered confidence of the cUents. 

From the referral and the intake 
stage to tlie final "follow on" visits and 
ultimate resettlement, all stages are most 
important and need sympathetic 
understanding and scientific treatment. 

Wise guidance and counselling at the 
very initial stage is of the utmost 
importance. The client has to be made 
fully aware of his own abilities and 
disabilities and made to recognise and 
accept his handicap. 

Initial scientific evaluation and 
assessment helps in planning the 
immediate rehabilitation as also the 
ultimate resettlement of the chent. 
Modem methods encourage joint planning 
and evaluation with representatives of a 
very wide variety of community agencies. 

In rehabilitation, the individualised 
training of clients as also planning their 
immediate and long term training and 
resettlement has to be given the greatest 
importance. Each individual's problem and 
goals are different. It is accepted that 
every individual is a unique person with a 

unique problem. Generalising has, 
therefore, to be discarded in favour of 
specialised and individualised planning and 

The team concept whereby the 
multidisciplinary approach is furthered has 
to be adopted. Medical, psychological, 
social and vocational treatment and 
training have all to receive equal 
importance. If one is emphasised in 
preference to another, the treatment of 
the client as a whole will not be successful. 
It is therefore imperative that integrated 
and individualised services are developed 
with a view to developing the total 
personahty of the client. 

The human dignity of the blind 
individual has always to be borne in mind. 
The earlier the client is motivated to 
better efforts and guided to correct 
attitudes and approaches, the earher will 
he achieve total and satisfying 

The medical authorities, the 
psychologists and the psychiatrists, the 
professional social workers, the vocational 
guidance counselors and the chent himself, 
all have very major and vital roles to play 
in the total psycho-social and economic 
rehabilitation of the client. 

It is to be recognised that the client 
will always come up with new emotional 
as also other problems. "Follow on" 
services, keeping in close touch with the 
client are, therefore, a must. 

The goal should not be only 
economic resettlement, but the happy 
resettlement of the chent in normal family 
and social life. With this view in mind, it is 
essential to solve their housing and other 


problems satisfactorily. 

Once the client cleaily recognises his 
own abilities and disabilities, accepts his 
handicap, knows the limitations imposed 
by the handicap, develops right attitudes 
and approaches, is motivated in the right 
direction and assists the expert 

rehabilitation team, success is assured. The 
principles and methods employed in 
rehabilitation programs have been 
embodied at India's first full-fledged 
Rehabilitation Centre for the Blind at Mt. 
Abu. This is the Pheroze and Noshir 
Merwanji Rehabilitation Centre for the 


In March of this year the House Ways 
and Means Committee reported out its 
version of the President's proposed Family 
Assistance Prograrii and the House passed 
the bill on April 16 as H. R. 1631 1. It was 
then sent to tlie Senate Finance 
Committee for consideration. After just 
three days of iiearings, and in an 
unprecedented action, the Senate Finance 
Committee referred the bill liack to the 
Department of Healtli, Education, and 
Welfare to devise an overall plan for 
welfare refonn which would recognize the 
contributions made by other aid programs 
such as public housing, food stamps, rent 
supplements, and so on. It was also the 
view of ihe Committee that monetary 
incentives for able-bodied individuals to 
reduce or quit gaiiiful employment in 
order to qualify for larger welfare benefits 
sliould be ended. The Committee felt that 
the Family Assistance Plan continued 
these disincentives to self-help. It is 
expected that the Secretary of HEW will 
report back to the Committee in about 
thirty days, at which time hearings will be 
continued. It looks as though this 
proposed legislation may be debated for a 

long time by tlie Congress. 

Assembly Bill 347 was introduced 
into the California Legislature to exempt 
the purchase price for white canes from 
the State sales tax. The United States flag 
was incoiporated into the bill as another 
exemption from the sales tax; then the bill 
was still further amended to exempt Bibles 
and Mothers Dav cards from the lew. 

Recently a blind student at London's 
Royal National Institute for the Blind 
demonstrated the use of a pair of 
ultrasonic spectacles which he claimed 
iielped him 'see' by bouncing echoes off of 
objects. The student walked rapidly along 
a crowded street and was able to 
distinguish an iron fence from a walk, and 
a lamp post from a mailbox through 
differences in sound. 


Nearly four out of five states are in 
apparent violation of Federal Welfare 
requirements, according to a report 
released by the Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare. Some thirty-nine 
states and the District of Columbia have 
apparent violations or unresolved issues 
concerning compliance with Federal 
regulations, acts of Congress, or Supreme 
Court decisions. Issues involved range 
from states failing to adjust payment 
standards as required by law to more 
minor questions as to practices. An 
additional ten states have issues involving 
other social and rehabilitation programs. 
West Virginia was the only State with no 
questions about compliance in any of its 
social and rehabihtation programs. 

Mrs. Marcelle Cowburn, former 
Rehabilitation Officer of the World 
Veterans Federation, has been appointed 
Secretary-General of the W.C.W.B. She 
succeeds John Jarvis, who has been 
Secretary-General since 1959 and recently 
resigned to devote full time to his work at 
the Royal National Institute for the Blind. 

The Library of Congress, Division for 
the Blind and Physically Handicapped, has 
recently issued an infonnative brochure 
entitled That All May Read. It discusses in 
clear language such pertinent subjects as 
eligibility for the service, certification, 
regional Hbraries, selection, talking book 
records, magnetic tape. Braille, music, 
volunteers, technical improvements, and 
publications and information. Copies may 
be obtained from the Library of Congress, 
Wasliington, D.C. 20542. 

^ ^ Hi ^ ^ ^ 

Public demand for Food Stamps has 
grown tremendously as the result of new, 
more generous tables of issuance which 
provide each household with a larger 
amount of Food Stamps at a lower cost. 
Persons approved for public assistance 
automatically receive Food Stamp 
authorization cards. 

The South Carolina Aurora Club of 
the Blind successfully sponsored an 
amendment to the appropriations bill for 
the South Carohna Department of Pubhc 
Welfare which provides specifically that 
the amount appropriated for Aid to the 
Blind sliall not be diverted or otherwise 
transferred and used for any other 
purpose. The Club also secured passage of 
a new law which provides that the spouse 
of a blind individual may render assistance 
in voting. If no spouse is available, the 
blind person can be assisted by one of the 
managers of the precinct and a bystander. 

Drugs ordinarily used to treat cancer 
have been used to subdue serious eye 
inflammations after other treatments have 
failed, according to a senior investigator 
for the National Institutes of Health. 
Some of the results have been dramatic in 
cases of severe and prolonged 
inflammation. The drugs have also been 
able to control rejection of corneal 

James T. Walsh reports that the 
Liberty Alliance (formerly called the 
Liberty Chapter) of the Pennsylvania 
Federation of the Blind recently held its 
second seminar. The topic was: "Should 


Pennsylvania Have a Commission lor the 
Blind to Sei-ve the Blind People of the 
Commonwealth?" Speakers included 
WOIiam Murray, Director of the Blind 
Center in York County. Pennsylvania; Dr. 
Leon Read, Director of the Greater 
Pittsburg Guild for the Blind; John 
Mungovan, Director of the Massachusetts 
Commission for the Blind; Ralph Beistline, 
Consultant in the present State agency for 
the blind and physically handicapped. The 
NFB Washington representative, the 
"Patrick Henry" of the movement, John 
Nagle, deplored fragmentation of services 
and vividly described the benefits that 
could accrue to blind Pennsylvanians 
under a Commission. After the speakers, 
the audience participated in a lively 
discussion. The Seminaj- concluded with 
Pennsylvania Federationists giving a 
resounding approval to a resolution to 
pursue the creation of a Commission for 
tlie Blind in the Commonwealth. 

Some 34,000 Americans become 
blind each yeai\ estimates the National 
Society for the Prevention of Blindness. 
There already ai'e almost half a million 
blind persons in our nation today. 
Catai-act and glaucoma are the leading 
causes of blindness. There are an estiinated 
22.636,000 preschool-age children in the 
United States today and one in every 
twenty is affected by some serious vision 
problem which usually can be corrected if 
discovered and treated before school age. 
An estimated 12,670,000 school children 
are in need of some form of eye care. 

Rubella is a relatively mild disease of 
children, but a serious problem for women 

who contract the disease during early 
pregnajicy. The nibella epidemic of 1964 
is estimated to have caused 50,000 
abnormal pregnancies, with some 20,000 
babies born with birth defects. More than 
seven million children have been 
vaccinated against rubella since June of 
1969. It is estimated by the Department 
of Health, Education, and Welfare that by 
the fall of this year- one-half of the target 
population of forty million children will 
have been reached. 

:*;:}: :i; :{: :ic ^ 

States with Medicaid plans will soon 
be required to set up regular programs 
under which medical teams will review the 
appropriateness and adequacy of care 
being given Medicaid patients in nursing 
homes and mental hospitals and ascertain 
the need for continuing such care. The 
proposed regulations will require that 
patients receive complete medical 
evaluations before they are admitted to 
nursing homes or mental hospitals under 
Medicaid or, if they are already there, 
before Medicaid payments are authorized. 
These imminent requirements are part of 
an effort on the part of tlie Federal 
Government to find ways to stop the 
spiraUng costs of the program, a subject in 
which the Congress is also deeply 
interested and will soon enact legislation 
tightenmg up the whole program. 

Four years ago Robert G. Porter was 
denied service in a restaurant because of 
Ms guide dog. The blind maji won a 
superior court suit against the restaurant. 
Tiny Naylor-Virgil's, a restaurant in Los 
Angeles, was ordered to pay the 
forty-one-year-old Porter S250 for 


violation of his civil rights. Porter testified 
that late on the night of October 19, 
1966, he was ordered out of the restaurant 
by employees who were not acquainted 
with the guide dog exception to the 
California health law barring dogs from 

^ :J: :i: ^ ^ :}: 

The Illinois Congress of the Blind has 
announced the publication of a new 
monthly newsletter which was begun in 
January of this year. It is called The 
Month's News and its editor is Rami 
Rabby. News items sliould be sent to the 
editor, 1611 Chicago Avenue. Evanston, 
Illinois 60201. 

Mrs. LucOle Hitt writes that Compoz, 
a preparation for nerves and composure, 
contains a warning on its label which 
miglit be ignored because of the small 
print. The warning says that the product is 
dangerous for those with glaucoma, a 
condition which often exists for some 
time before it is detected. The warning is 
not included in the frequently aired 
television commercial. 

Cosmetic workshops for the bhnd, 
developed by the American Foundation 
for the Blind aiid Helena Rubenstein and 
designed to teach blind women to put on 
makeup correctly, have been held in 
Dallas, Little Rock, Daytona Beach, and 
Chicago this spring. "Although a woman 
can't see," said Miss Mavis ShickeD, chief 
makeup technician for Helena Rubenstem 
and workshop leader, "she responds to 
beauty and enjoys feeling beautiful. It is 

equally important for blind women, as for 
sighted, to have the confidence that comes 
from a nice appearance. With training and 
practice there is no reason a blind woman 
can't pluck her own eyebrows, apply 
mascara and even don false eyelashes." 
Miss Shickell calls the method "facial 
touch geography" and it involves learning 
by touch the contours, textures and basic 
cleansing patterns for the face. Careful 
organization is one of the elements of this 
method, including the arrangement of the 
cosmetics in a fixed order to which they 
are returned after use. Products such as 
squeeze bottles and powders in sticks are 
chosen for their mildness and ease of 
application. A blind woman should never 
use loose powder. Miss Shickell notes. 
"This cosmetic routine gives blind women 
the joy of independence," she says. "It's a 
wonderful morale booster for women who 
have never been able to use cosmetics 
without help from others." 

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ :^ 

For the first time it rained during the 
serving of the annual barbecue supper of 
the Columbia Chapter of the South 
Carolina Aurora Club. However, the rain 
faOed to dampen the enthusiasm of well 
over two thousand Columbians who 
visited the Aurora Center of the Bhnd on 
Thursday, March 19. Tickets were 
distributed at the Columbia Chapter's 
Valentine party and 2707 tickets were 
sold. The club's net profit was $2010.05, 
which assures an excellent financial basis 
for the club's activities during the coming 
year. The chapter voted $800 of these 
funds to the Aurora Center's expansion 
program. Because tlie barbecue supper is a 
membership effort the entire club has had 
a part in the Center's expansion program. 
The participating public received club 


literature detailing the ways the proceeds are used in the club's work.